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HENRY J .WOOD 



ROSA NEWMARCH 



LIVING MASTERS OF MUSIC I. 
EDITED BY ROSA NEWMARCH 



HENRY J. WOOD 



HENRY J. WOOD 

BY ROSA NEWMARCH 




JOHN LANE , THE BODLEY HEAD 

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LONDON & NEW YORK. MDCCCCIV 



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COLSTON AND COY. LIMITED, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION I 

I. BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE (1870-1895) . . 4 

ii. THE QUEEN'S HALL AND PROMENADE CONCERTS 1 1 

III. THE SYMPHONY AND SUNDAY CONCERTS . 22 

IV. THE MAN : HIS TEMPERAMENT AND HIS METHODS 29 

V. HENRY J. WOOD AS ORCHESTRAL CONDUCTOR . 4! 

VI. THE INTERPRETATIVE CONDUCTOR ... 49 

VII. HENRY J. WOOD AND RUSSIAN MUSIC . . 6 1 

VIII. HENRY J. WOOD AND VOCAL ART . . . 70 

LIST OF NEW WORKS PRODUCED AT QUEEN'S 

HALL 83 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

1. HENRY J, WOOD, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY 

HOLLYER frontispiece 

2. HENRY J. WOOD, AGED IO YEARS . to face p. 6 

3. THE QUEEN'S HALL .... to face p. 18 

4. THE QUEEN'S HALL ORCHESTRA, PHOTOGRAPHED 

EXPRESSLY BY THE LONDON STEREOSCOPIC 

co to face p. 38 

5. HENRY J. WOOD, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY GEO. 

PENDRY, NOTTINGHAM . . . to face /. 56 

6. THE SHEFFIELD FESTIVAL CHORUS AND 

ORCHESTRA (1902) . . . . to face p. 72 



Vii 



"Little minds soon come to terms with themselves and the 
world, and then fossilise; but the others flourish, and are 
always alive and in motion. ... It is a persistent, un- 
interrupted activity that constitutes the superior mind." 

SC HO PEN HA UER. 



HENRY J. WOOD 






INTRODUCTION 

IN writing of the man who apart from creative 
artists is unquestionably the central figure in 
English musical life, I am conscious of all the 
disadvantages which beset contemporary biography. 
To write of living celebrities needs the special gifts 
of tact and an impartial temper, to which most 
probably I have no claim whatever. When, as in 
the present case, the writer enjoys the privilege of 
friendship and frequent intercourse with the subject 
of the book himself, there is always the risk of 
saying more than should be said in a man's lifetime. 
On the other hand, the study of a living personality 
written from an entirely objective standpoint must 
necessarily lack the intimate glow and sense of 
actuality which give its chief value to a con- 
temporary record. 

There is a special difficulty in dealing with a man 
who has achieved so much in such a short space of 
time. His rush from comparative obscurity to the 
conspicuous heights of success leaves his biographer 

A 



a HENRY J. WOOD 

fairly breathless. To follow his career at his own 
pace demands something of his own impetuous 
energy and staying power. The course has been 
covered, the prize has been won, but as yet there 
has hardly been time to see how the race was 
ridden. 

In undertaking a book upon our greatest English 
conductor, which is frankly eulogistic in tone and 
has for its object the vindication of his phenomenal 
success, it is an encouragement to feel that practically 
the entire public will be on my side. Those who are 
likely to prove hostile critics may be divided into 
two classes. A small minority of grudging natures 
like to read into the old maxim, "De mortuis nil nisi 
bonum" a corrupt and ungenerous interpretation 
" Of the living never say anything good." Fortun- 
ately these ungracious and illiberal spirits, who call 
nothing great or good for fear of being mistaken, 
are a negligible quantity. There remains, however, 
another class, whose sympathies honestly lie with past 
methods of conducting, and who see in the interpreta- 
tive> the virtuoso and the tempo rubato conductor a 
force as dangerous to their musical system as a comet 
might be to the order of the universe. 

To these I would simply say, defer judgment. 
To write of Henry J. Wood is necessarily to write 
as much for the future as for the present. Such 
opponents are probably moving forward, though 
slowly, while Mr Wood's style and tastes are broad- 
ening and mellowing with every concert season. It 
is only at maturity that our sympathies with past and 
present become equalised, and we see that artistic 



INTRODUCTION 3 

truth is good from whatever source it reaches us. 
Soon there will be a common meeting-ground, and 
the doubters of to-day will be the disciples of to- 
morrow. Meanwhile, to that larger public who 
harbour neither grudging spirits nor timid doubts 
I may safely confide the future of this little book. 



I 

BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE (18/0-1895) 

HENRY J. WOOD was born in Newman Street, London, 
March 3, 1870. He was the only child of his parents, 
who were both natives of England, although his 
mother was of Welsh origin. To this Celtic strain he 
probably owes his striking physiognomy the warm, 
dusky colouring, the vivacious play of feature and 
vehemence of gesture which distinguish him from 
the average type of Englishman. 

His musical gift was inherited from both sides. 
His father, besides being a good amateur 'cellist, 
was a pupil of John Hullah, and for twenty-five years 
solo tenor at the church of St Sepulchre, E.G. Mr 
Wood's mother was a charming singer, and to her 
the future conductor is indebted for his early musi- 
cal education. His father was proud of his accom- 
plishments, but it was his mother who helped him 
patiently through all the initial difficulties which 
even for a highly-gifted child beset the first steps 
in musical knowledge. She, too, it was who first 
awoke his keen interest in music, and especially in 

4 



BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE (1870-1895) 5 

singing. In this, as in many other matters, she 
influenced him deeply. His gifts must have been 
as precocious as those of the infant Mozart, since at 
six he was able to take part in the music of the 
earlier classical masters, such as Bach and Haydn. 

He showed as much aptitude for organ as for 
piano, and at ten often acted as deputy organist of 
St Mary Aldermanbury. At seventeen he was ap- 
pointed organist and choirmaster of St John's, 
Fulham. 

Mr Wood studied for six terms at the Royal 
Academy of Music, where he gained four medals. 
Among the teachers with whom he worked were 
Professor Prout and Mr Manuel Garcia, to whom 
he considers himself most indebted. Undoubtedly 
one of the chief factors in his musical development 
has been his almost life-long friendship with Mr 
Hermann Smith, who interested him in the scien- 
tific side of music, especially in acoustics and ques- 
tions of pitch. " To him," says Mr Wood, " I owe 
my first true perception of beauty of tone" 

Almost before he was in his teens he took part, at 
least two or three nights a week, in chamber-music 
at home. He first came before the public as an 
organist. The recitals of " Master Henry J. Wood " 
were a feature of the Fisheries' Exhibition of 1883 and 
the Inventions' Exhibition of 1885. A year or two 
later he began to be in request as an accompanist. 

From 1885 to 1890 he served his apprenticeship to 
the "trivial round" and "common task" of musical 
life, giving numerous organ recitals and accompany- 
ing at many unimportant concerts, This kind of 



6 HENRY J. WOOD 

drudgery is the refiner's fire which consumes all but 
the strongest and finest ideals in art. Mr Wood's 
musical temperament was too fervid, and too elastic, 
to suffer from this temporary association with 
mediocrity. 

While still a mere boy, his thoughts were busy with 
composition, and about 1888 his name occurs fre- 
quently in programmes as a song-writer. He next 
tried his hand at light operas, cantatas and oratorio, 
and several of his works were performed about this 
time in London and the provinces. 

Some of the most considerable compositions then 
planned and completed have never seen the light of 
publicity. In these works, which are always practic- 
able and written with due regard to orchestral effect 
and vocal possibilities, there is much in which even so 
talented a young man might take a legitimate pride. 
But at this moment Mr Wood's development in other 
directions was so rapid, and so sure, that he entirely 
outgrew any natural weakness he originally cher- 
ished for his own creations. Perhaps he would 
not have abandoned them thus inexorably if he had 
not felt that what was strongest and most individual 
in him did not find vent in his creative work. At 
anyrate, from the moment he found his true vocation 
and place in music he decided to let his compositions 
slide into oblivion. I shall respect the wisdom of his 
decision. 

It has always been Mr Wood's ambition to be a 
" professional " conductor a specialist in his own 
line. To be this a musician must be a man of action 
in every sense of the word, living as much as pos- 




HKNKY J. WOOD 
At the a s e of ten jca 



BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE (1870-1895) 7 

sible in the full current of musical life and activity, 
whereas the composer needs an atmosphere of tran- 
quillity, and can only give the world his best by 
detaching himself from it during the process of 
creation. The interpretative and creative careers 
Mr Wood considers irreconcilable. 

His first experience as a conductor was gained 
during a four months' tour with the Arthur Rousbey 
Company, beginning in September 1889. The 
autumn of 1890 brought a better chance of winning 
distinction in this line, for he was engaged by Sir 
Arthur Sullivan and Mr D'Oyly Carte to superintend 
the rehearsals of Ivanhoe, produced at the new Royal 
English Opera House (now the Palace Theatre) in 
March 1891. From this engagement he went on to 
assist Cellier at the Savoy Theatre ; and also added 
to his experience by conducting Ambroise Thomas's 
Mignon and the revival of Gounod's Mock Doctor (Le 
Medecin malgre lui} at the Crystal Palace. In August 
1891 he was engaged by the Carl Rosa Opera Com- 
pany to conduct Carmen during Madame Marie 
Roze's farewell tour in the provinces. August 1892 
found him in the north of England conducting for 
Madame Georgina Burns and Mr Leslie Crotty, for 
whom he had prepared an English version of Rossini's 
La Cenerentola> to which he added incidental music 
as well as re-scoring parts of the work. From this 
engagement he was recalled to London to a far more 
important post that of conductor to Signer Lago's 
ill-fated operatic enterprise at the Olympic Theatre. 

The season opened with Tchaikovsky's popular 
opera, Eugene Oniegin^ which had taken both the 



8 HENRY J. WOOD 

Russian capitals by storm. The opera was produced 
and conducted by Mr Wood, and this was his first 
association with that school of Russian music with 
which he has since been so persistently identified. 
A Russian critic has compared Tchaikovsky's opera 
to a woman with many faults of heart and mind, 
whom we love for her beauty in spite of them all. 
Eugene Oniegin was one of Mr Wood's first loves in 
opera, and he has never outgrown his early affection 
for this work, which opened out to him a new and 
fascinating land in the world of music. He still 
kindles into enthusiasm in recalling his admirable 
caste, and more especially the dramatic intensity 
and fire which Mr Eugene Oudin infused into the 
title role. Glancing through a number of press 
notices which extinguished this captivating opera 
under a flood of tepid praise and mildly facetious 
abuse, one note alone seems unanimous and clear 
the young conductor scored a success. 

In all, Mr Wood has conducted forty-six operas, 
grand and comic, and it is no exaggeration to say 
that the whole repertoire of the lyric stage is at his 
finger-ends. 

When Signer Lago's season came to a premature 
close, there followed a pause in Mr Wood's career as 
a conductor. He now began to devote himself with 
characteristic energy to the teaching of singing. 
Besides giving private lessons, he started operatic 
classes and worked in association with Mr Gustave 
Garcia. At the Royal Academy he had been accom- 
panist at the vocal examinations. In this way he 
came in touch with the chief teachers of singing, and 



BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE (1870-1895) 9 

observed all the merits and defects of their various 
methods. Not only did he pick up a vast amount of 
information about voice production, but he became 
familiar with various traditional readings of the great 
vocal masterpieces. This was the invaluable part of 
his Academy training, and it is this experience 
which makes him such an admirable coach, as the 
singers have discovered for themselves. 

While at Bayreuth, in the summer of 1894, Mr 
Wood became acquainted with Herr Mottl, the Wag- 
nerian conductor, and arrangements were then made 
by which he was appointed musical adviser to 
Mr Schulz Curtius for the Queen's Hall Wagner 
Concerts. 

In the spring of 1895 he first became associated 
with Mr Robert Newman, the enterprising manager 
of Queen's Hall, and was engaged to conduct the 
first series of Promenade Concerts given in that 
building. This was the starting-point of a new and 
brilliant career. 

In July 1898 he married Olga, the only daughter 
of the late Princess Sofie Ouroussov (nee Narishkin), 
of Emilovka, Podolia. Mrs Wood, who has studied 
with her husband, is known to the public as a singer 
of rare charm and distinction who has largely con- 
tributed to the appreciation of Russian songs in 
England. It is only her husband and her intimate 
friends who know all her remarkable capacities in 
other directions. It is not too much to say that her 
ready help and sympathy, and her untiring devotion 
to her husband's interests, has made it possible for 
him to accomplish an amount of work which would 



io HENRY J. WOOD 

have worn out a man less happily situated. Mr 
Wood is justly renowned as an accompanist altogether 
hors ligne ; but no one who has not heard him play 
for his wife knows what he really can do in the way 
of accompaniment. 



II 

THE QUEEN'S HALL AND PROMENADE CONCERTS 

THE association of two such energetic personalities 
as Mr Newman and Mr Henry J. Wood could not 
fail to leave its mark on the musical life of London. 
But it will be easier to understand the full value 
of the work they accomplished at Queen's Hall if, 
before reviewing it, I recall the actual condition of 
things when Mr Newman made his first venture 
with the Promenade Concerts. 

There was a season of Italian Opera, lasting from 
May to July, which drew the fashionable world at 
prices prohibitive to the ordinary public. The 
Richter Concerts, instituted in 1879, appealed more 
especially to " cultured " London. But there were 
rarely more than from six to eight of these concerts 
given during the year, and their influence was not 
widespread, because their atmosphere was charged, 
like that of some church services, with a kind of 
sacerdotal dignity, an aroma of cultured superiority, 
which kept aloof the deserving poor. The concerts 
of the Philharmonic Society, which have existed 
since 1813, drew another section of the musical 

ii 



12 HENRY J. WOOD 

world. These also had their special " atmosphere," 
although it was not rendered oppressive by the weight 
of intellectual superiority. The London Symphony 
Concerts, which originated under the direction of 
Mr Henschel in 1886, made a gallant effort to supply 
high-class music at moderate prices. Interesting as 
these concerts were from an artistic point of view, 
they never won the whole-hearted support of the 
public. The only permanent orchestral concerts 
were those at the Crystal Palace on Saturday 
afternoons, started in 1855, with Mr now Sir 
Augustus Manns as conductor. They were un- 
doubtedly a great educational force, and maintained 
from first to last a high artistic level. But Sydenham 
is not the Metropolis, and considerations of time, 
distance and expense put them beyond reach of 
the ever-increasing mass of concert-goers. Besides 
these orchestral concerts there were those of the 
Royal Choral Society at the Albert Hall, and the 
Monday and Saturday Popular Concerts for those 
who preferred the milder joys of chamber music. 

With these various enterprises continued through 
the spring and autumn seasons, it would be ridiculous 
to pretend that London was benighted, musically 
speaking, before the opening of Queen's Hall. But 
each of these courses of concerts appealed only to 
some particular section, I might almost say clique, of 
the musical world. There was very little amalgamation 
or interchange of audiences. Members of Richter's 
congregation did not attend the Philharmonic, and 
vice versA. Popular music there was practically 
none, notwithstanding that the keen competition 



THE QUEEN'S HALL 13 

for the cheaper seats at the Richter and Popular 
Concerts pointed to a growing public ready and 
willing to pay, within their means, for the pleasure 
of hearing good music. So little were the masses 
considered worthy of exploitation that, during the 
absence of fashionable society, the people were left 
from the end of July until the middle or end of 
September without any serious music at all. 

The only cheap concerts were those held at Covent 
Garden for a few weeks during the autumn. These 
Promenade Concerts were conducted by Mr Alfred 
Mellon until 1866, and afterwards by Signer Arditi, 
Messrs Riviere, Crowe, and others. Their artistic 
standard varied with the conductor. High-class 
music was introduced in a timid spirit. As a rule 
only excerpts from the great masterpieces were 
given, and these were sandwiched in between much 
that was trivial and even vulgar. The popping of 
corks punctuated the music at frequent intervals, 
for the management relied largely on the refreshment 
department for the success of the enterprise. 

When Sir Arthur Sullivan took up the baton at 
the Covent Garden Concerts he made an effort to 
improve the style of the programmes. In 1878 he 
gave Beethoven's Nine Symphonies week by week ; 
but, according to a writer in the Musical Times, 
"the music was so good that it hindered the sale 
of refreshments, and the financial results were pro- 
portionately unsatisfactory"! In this case music 
seems to have been something more than " the food 
of love." 

By 1895 London was ripe for better-class concerts. 



H HENRY J. WOOD 

The taste for orchestral music developed with 
remarkable rapidity until, at the present time, it 
has reached a pitch of enthusiasm which some 
regard as ill-balanced and inimical to the interests 
of art. Our natural aptitude for choral music, say 
these pessimists, will suffer in consequence. Possibly ; 
but the swing of the pendulum was inevitable. 
Critics have attributed the new " orchestral craze " 
to various causes. One speaks of its having been 
" created " by Mr Robert Newman, presumably with 
the assistance of Mr Henry J. Wood. This, seems to 
be arguing from effect to cause. Popular appetites 
are not created by individuals, though they may be 
guided by them. Others account for it by the 
multiplication of orchestral societies, and the im- 
provement in the tone of bands generally, consequent 
on the number of trained musicians turned out 
annually by our schools and colleges. It can surely 
be more logically explained as a natural reaction 
from the monotonous manufacture of choral works, 
which has been carried on in England since the 
days of Handel. What might be described as the 
"oratorio industry" has absorbed the best and the 
worst of our musical material for nearly two 
centuries. 

After the English musicians of the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries had set the Bible several 
times over to music of a colourless and tepid kind, 
there arose a generation who craved a secular 
renaissance. They realised that sacred music, like 
a sand-storm from the desert, had overwhelmed 
and choked nearly all that was bright and promis- 



THE QUEEN'S HALL 15 

ing in our native talent. The religious spirit which 
animated our Church music until the time of the 
Restoration was altogether a different thing from 
the dry, semi-sacred, stolidly Protestant ideals which 
were Handel's legacy to the country of his adoption. 
In other countries Opera has balanced Church Music 
and supplied a wholesome, secular corrective which 
has kept musical art in a sane and progressive 
condition. In England half-Puritan still in musical 
feeling we accepted Oratorio as a compromise and 
became atrophied on the secular side. 

There was of course some excuse for the men of 
promise and the men of incapacity who wrote their 
innumerable " Hezekiahs," "Jeremiahs," "Jonahs" 
and "Joshuas," and celebrated all the prophets, 
virgins and martyrs in oratorio during the nineteenth 
century; it was almost the only form in which, by 
the medium of some festival performance, they 
could hope to reach the ears of the British public. 
To look into catalogues and dictionaries which 
hold, like so many sarcophagi, all that remains of 
these countless oratorios and cantatas, is to shiver 
with depression. How came the England of 
Shakespeare, Ford and Webster to give birth to 
such an anaemic and passionless musical art, and to 
be satisfied with it for nearly two centuries ? The fact 
is our musical works were not of true English birth. 
They were cuckoo eggs, imported from Germany 
by Handel and Mendelssohn and hatched in 
British nests to the detriment of our native sing- 
ing-birds, who might otherwise have developed a 
distinct note of their own. 



16 HENRY J. WOOD 

At last the " ideal model " has changed. A young 
and hot-headed generation has asked for new sen- 
sations in music. They look for living forms, 
energetic movement, colour and passion, genius of 
race. Even the most adventurous and sensational 
music, if it has some pith in it, seems a relief from 
the lamentable monotony of the past. This change 
in the popular taste gave the new entrepreneur 
his opportunity. Where failing a national opera 
could the public satisfy this newly-awakened and 
natural hunger for a living art save in . modern 
orchestral music ? 

The Queen's Hall Concerts furnished a banquet, 
and Mr Wood has been our Amphitryon. We have 
had our reaction, or, as some consider, an orchestral 
orgy, and no one really regrets it, except a few 
valetudinarians whose digestions were not equal to 
all the dishes provided. 

The very first season of Promenade Concerts, in 
1895, revealed the existence in London of a large 
musical public entirely apart from the cultured few 
who had so far enjoyed the monopoly of symphonic 
music. The series comprised forty-nine concerts. 
The scheme was somewhat as follows: Monday, 
Wagner night; Tuesday, Sullivan night ; Wednesday, 
" classical " night ; Thursday, Schubert night ; Satur- 
day, " popular " night. The " popular " programme 
consisted of compositions by such composers as 
Gounod, Grieg and Mendelssohn. From the first 
it was noticeable that the best music drew the 
largest audiences. In 1896 there were sixty-two 
concerts; in 1897, forty-three; in 1898, forty-two; 



THE QUEEN'S HALL 17 

while in 1901 and 1902 the number was extended to 
106. This year, the management of Queen's Hall 
having passed into other hands, the number of the 
concerts has had to be reduced to fifty-four. 

Every year has witnessed a steady advance in the 
quality of the performances. Starting with the 
desire to possess the finest orchestra in London, 
Mr Newman allowed Mr Wood to select the best 
material available. The orchestra of nearly one hun- 
dred, playing together every night for weeks at a time, 
under a conductor whose thoroughness equalled his 
enthusiasm, soon acquired a unity of purpose, a 
discipline and polish impossible of attainment in a 
less permanent organisation. 

The tendency of the programmes has always been 
towards a higher standard; and after a time one 
night a week was set apart for the production of 
novelties. The Promenade Concerts have afforded 
an opportunity for making experiments which could 
hardly have been risked with a less eager and recep- 
tive audience. A fair proportion of the programmes 
has been devoted to the works of little known, and 
in some cases wholly untried, composers, British and 
foreign. Of course there have been grumblings 
heard from time to time from individuals who 
desired to make these concerts the dumping- 
ground for the refuse of some particular school or 
clique. Occasionally, too, a novelty has been 
announced, which for various reasons is afterwards 
found to be unsuitable for performance and has to 
be discarded, a proceeding fraught with great bitter- 
ness to the composer and his friends, although it 

B 



i8 HENRY J. WOOD 

may be only a measure of protective kindness 
towards the public. But, broadly speaking, a 
glance at the list of novelties produced by Mr 
Wood, which will be found at the end of this 
volume, proves conclusively that allowing some- 
thing for a naturally modern tendency the selec- 
tion has been made without undue favour to any 
school or nationality. 

Mr Wood had long been an advocate for the 
adoption of French pitch, and on being appointed 
conductor at Queen's Hall determined to carry his 
convictions into practice. He was assured that it 
would be impossible to succeed where others had 
failed ; but to youth and energy no difficulty is insur- 
mountable. The use of English philharmonic pitch 
made it impossible to give correct renderings of 
works written for instruments at French pitch. 
Beethoven's Choral Symphony and Wagner's com- 
positions were instances in point. Besides which, 
he saw from daily experience the disastrous effects 
of the higher pitch upon the voices of our vocalists. 
One of the greatest difficulties lay in the fact that 
many leading players did not possess wind instru- 
ments of French pitch. But Mr Wood solved the 
question by having new instruments specially con- 
structed and lending them to members of his 
orchestra. In this way the battle was fought and 
won. 

It is not generally known that this desirable end 
was attained by the generosity of a well-known 
medical man, a specialist in all that concerns the 
voice and throat. During many years' practice he 



THE QUEEN'S HALL 19 

had observed the disastrous effects of our high-pitch 
system upon the singers who were compelled to con- 
form to it, and offered to finance a series of artistic 
Promenade Concerts on condition that the low pitch 
should be adopted. 

The Promenade Concerts have had two great 
educational results they have been the means of 
training a first-rate orchestra, and they have helped 
to form a large English public of unusual intelli- 
gence and catholicity of taste. The audience at 
the "Promenades" compares favourably with any 
similar concourse I have seen in France, Germany 
or Russia. Thanks to the admirable arrangements 
of the hall, the "refreshing" is done out of sight 
and hearing of the concert-room. No drawing of 
corks or clinking of glasses lend new and unexpected 
effects to the sensationalism of the modern orchestra. 
Whether it really adds to the enjoyment of music to 
hear it, like Satan, " in a horrid vale . . . involved in 
stench and smoke," is a question which the female 
pen must not dare to pose. Certain blocks of seats 
are reserved for non-smokers, and the smokers them- 
selves are acquiring consideration for their immediate 
neighbours. The striking of lights is now rarely 
heard, as in the earlier seasons, during a delicate 
pianissimo or impressive pause. 

These concerts have recalled to memory a number 
of masterpieces which were formerly only heard at 
long intervals. They have brought to light a few 
interesting novelties, and given the public oppor- 
tunities of forming an opinion on works which were 
exciting comment and discussion abroad. It is 






20 HENRY J. WOOD 

something to have been made so familiar with the 
music of Tchaikovsky and Richard Strauss. For 
this wide cosmopolitan policy we have to thank 
the firmness of Henry J. Wood. For what he has 
refrained from giving us we have no doubt equal 
reason for thankfulness. 

It is an inspiriting sight to see the floor of 
Queen's Hall packed with an audience who will 
stand patiently through the longest concerto or 
symphony. To stand motionless for fifty-five 
minutes is a trial that might well extinguish all 
but the most impassioned ardour. But, as a writer 
in The Academy recently remarked, the word 
"promenade" has become, to Mr Wood's credit 
be it said, an entire delusion. This crowd will 
listen with intelligent interest to a Beethoven 
Symphony, a Tchaikovsky "Suite" or Strauss's 
" Heldenleben" to any music, in fact, which appeals 
to our common humanity. There is more hope for 
our musical future in their indiscriminate enjoyment 
than in all the wisdom of the initiated. It is really 
better to have a vulgarised art than one which is an 
esoteric mystery, with a priesthood who must often 
be fairly puzzled to decipher their own hieroglyph. 
However, I am far from suggesting that Mr Wood 
has vulgarised his art ; he has certainly popularised 
it, which is a very different matter. 

We have been unjustly labelled unmusical as a 
nation. That we have appeared so is due more to 
the want of opportunity than the lack of capacity to 
appreciate good music. A nation cannot enjoy what 
fate persistently withholds from it. We have no 



THE QUEEN'S HALL 21 

national Opera house, and until recently no popular 
concerts worthy of the name, I think one may 
also add that English musicians, as a body, have 
been extraordinarily lacking in enthusiasm and have 
looked at things too much from their own professional 
standpoint and too little from that of the public. 
The younger generation will enter into a wider 
musical life. 

Under these circumstances it would be as untrue 
to speak of the Irish peasantry as "vegetarians" 
because they do not eat meat with their potatoes, 
as to condemn the English as unmusical because 
they do not go to expensive and exclusive concerts 
and are en masse completely ignorant of operatic 
music. The Promenade Concerts have proved how 
false is the charge that we have no music in our- 
selves. They deserve our gratitude because they 
have taken away our national reproach. 



Ill 

THE SYMPHONY AND SUNDAY CONCERTS 

THE success of the Promenade Concerts encouraged 
Mr Newman to begin a short series of Symphony 
Concerts in January 1896, with an increased orchestra 
of 103, again under the direction of Henry J. Wood. 
In the spring and autumn of the previous year, 
Mr Newman had engaged the famous Lamoureux 
Orchestra, which then visited England for the first 
time. The coming of the veteran French conductor 
and his musicians could not fail to exercise some 
influence on the development of Henry J. Wood 
and the Queen's Hall Orchestra. But this influence 
was not so great as it has been represented, and 
lay rather in the direction of method than of 
style. Lamoureux was not the first great con- 
ductor whom the young Englishman had observed, 
and from whom he had learnt a great deal by close 
observation. Richter and Mottl came much nearer 
his ideal as conductors than Lamoureux. Neverthe- 
less, the amicable rivalry between the French and 
English bands was an excellent thing for the junior 
organisation. By the time Lamoureux paid his 
third visit, in the spring of 1897, the most friendly 

22 



THE SYMPHONY CONCERTS 23 

and affectionate relations existed between their 
respective conductors. 

The Lamoureux Orchestra had been established 
in Paris since 1873, and was accounted one of the 
finest in the world. It had been drilled with a 
fundamental thoroughness unknown in England at 
that time. Sectional rehearsals were then undreamt 
of in our orchestral organisations. This band pos- 
sessed the qualities which can only be acquired by 
permanence a disciplined alertness, untiring atten- 
tion, precision, nicety of detail all the virtues which 
habit confers and constant exercise keeps bright. 
As regards musical temperament and quality of 
tone, our musicians were quite the equals of the 
French players. 

In the autumn and spring of 1897-1898 Lamoureux 
came again, this time without his own band, and 
conducted the Queen's Hall Orchestra. He had 
been a violinist before he became a conductor, and 
understood the immense importance of unanimity in 
bowing. With the exception of Ysaye, he was per- 
haps the greatest conductor of strings we have ever 
heard in this country. No band could pass through 
his hands without improving in this respect, but to 
suggest, as some writers have done, that he " made " 
the Queen's Hall Orchestra is hardly doing justice 
to our own conductor. 

In 1901 there was an interchange of courtesies, 
Mr Wood being invited to conduct one of the 
Lamoureux Sunday Concerts in Paris. 

During the spring and autumn of 1898 the Saturday 
Concerts, under Henry J. Wood, continued their sue- 



24 HENRY J. WOOD 

cessful course, although at this time there was a good 
deal of fractious criticism of the programmes. But 
these concerts, which were run on commercial, not on 
sentimental or educational, lines, had perforce to draw 
the public or cease to exist. In spite of the rising fame 
of their conductor they had not at that time the 
prestige of a great name to support them. They were 
not fashionable, represented no cause, and had to 
lose or win entirely on their own merits. It was 
necessary to make tentative efforts to discover the 
taste of a new and unknown public, and if they pre- 
ferred toujours perdrix in the form of a Beethoven 
Symphony or Tchaikovsky's "Pathetic," it was equally 
necessary to encourage them to come again. The 
subscribers to afternoon orchestral concerts in Lon- 
don are entirely different in taste and temper from 
the democratic and omnivorous public who enjoy a 
"Promenade." An afternoon audience resents ex- 
perimental music. This is not so inexplicable as 
it sounds, because our afternoon audiences are largely 
drawn from those decorous middle classes who have 
been brought up to regard monotony as a sign of 
sound principle and novelty as something flighty 
and subversive of the moral life. These people do 
not crave for new sensations. They are like the out- 
patients at a hospital. If you administer an electric 
shock on one Saturday they will not return for treat- 
ment the following week. And who shall say they 
are not wise in their cautiousness ? 

In June 1899 Mr Robert Newman organised a 
" Napoleonic enterprise." This was the London 
Musical Festival, in which the Lamoureux and 



THE SYMPHONY CONCERTS 25 

Queen's Hall Orchestras took part. They were 
directed by their respective conductors, and played 
alternately in the afternoons and evenings, winding 
up with a concert at which the combined bands were 
heard. 

From this musical tournament the English orchestra 
came off with flying colours. The Lamoureux band 
displayed their accustomed efficiency, their polished 
smoothness and neatness of phrasing, but many pre- 
ferred the less formal and more glowing interpreta- 
tions of the younger conductor. Lamoureux had 
the French vision in art that is to say, he was 
greatly preoccupied with order and design. The 
emotion was there, but simple, symmetrical, and 
kept strictly within bounds. 

Henry Wood's readings were fresher, more indi- 
vidual ; and if they were sometimes overcharged 
with exuberant vitality and emotion, it was easy to 
excuse in the younger musician the fault of giving 
too much. The public, who had hitherto regarded 
him as a promising conductor, now began to think 
of him as something more. At this time some of his 
interpretations, such as Tchaikovsky's " Pathetic " 
and Schubert's " Unfinished " Symphonies, and the 
" Funeral March " from Siegfried, attained a level 
of excellence he has scarcely surpassed since. 

When the Paris musicians returned for the Festival 
of 1900 their great conductor was no more, and 
they came under the direction of his son-in-law, 
Chevillard. This time the combined bands played 
frequently together, and it was observed that Mr 
Wood obtained much better results from this large 



26 HENRY J. WOOD 

body of players about 200 than the French con- 
ductor. 

In 1901 Colonne, Ysaye and Weingartner con- 
ducted at Queen's Hall during the season, so that 
the Englishman had no lack of competition to keep 
his wits bright. 

The Festival of 1902 was well described as a " Car- 
nival of Conductors," for Londoners had occasion 
to compare the styles of Weingartner, Ysaye and 
Nikisch. To conduct the final concert of such a 
series was an ordeal which a second-rate man would 
hardly have survived. But Mr Wood's freshness and 
energy carried him through. He whipped up a weary 
band and a satiated audience to renewed enthusiasm. 

The Saturday Symphony Concerts have main- 
tained their hold on the public favour. Each series 
has been remarkable for some special interest in the 
programmes. Thus, in the earlier schemes Beethoven 
was predominant, and the modern Russian school 
also took a leading place. Almost every year special 
Wagner concerts have been given, besides the usual 
Saturday concerts. 

The season 1902-1903 was memorable for the in- 
troduction of five tone-poems by Richard Strauss 
" Don Juan," " Till Eulenspiegel," " Feuersnoth," 
" Tod und Verklarung " and " Heldenleben." The 
programmes for the present season are chiefly re- 
markable for a judicious eclecticism, which gives 
breathing space for concert-goers after a very strong 
dose of Strauss in the spring and a considerable 
number of novelties at the autumn Promenades. 
The chief items of the current series are two Sym- 



THE SYMPHONY CONCERTS 27 

phonies of Brahms, two of Tchaikovsky's, one of 
Borodin's, and Liszt's " Dante " Symphony. 

Besides the Symphony Concerts, yet another ven- 
ture was started at Queen's Hall, the musical direc- 
tion of which eventually passed into the hands of 
Henry J. Wood. The Sunday afternoon aud even- 
ing concerts fulfilled a long-felt want in London. 
The former are orchestral concerts of great artistic 
value. The evening concerts were choral, at which 
such oratorios as the " Messiah," " Elijah " and 
Gounod's " Redemption " were given by the now 
defunct Queen's Hall Choral Society. The Sunday 
Concerts were originally run by Mr Newman on 
ordinary commercial lines, but they were not allowed 
to proceed without strenuous opposition from the 
Sabbatarian party, and in 1898, the London County 
Council having refused to renew Mr Newman's 
licence, unless a clause prohibiting Sunday opening 
for profit was inserted, the enterprise passed into 
the hands of the Sunday Concert Society. Henry 
J. Wood was retained as conductor of the afternoon 
concerts, which have continued to provide elevating 
recreation for hundreds to whom it is the best day hi 
the week for the enjoyment of music. This season 
the concerts have been literally crowded, which is 
the best justification of their existence. 

In November 1899 Mr Wood visited Berlin to 
conduct the orchestra of the Philharmonic Society. 
Invitations to conduct concerts in Russia and Spain 
have had to be refused in consequence of his engage- 
ments at home. 

In November 1898 Queen Victoria commanded 



28 HENRY J. WOOD 

the attendance of Mr Wood and the Queen's Hall 
Orchestra at Windsor. After the concert, which con- 
sisted chiefly of a Wagner selection and two move- 
ments of Tchaikovsky's " Pathetic " Symphony, the 
conductor was presented to Her Majesty. Struck, 
like the world in general, by his un-English appear- 
ance, the Queen demanded an assurance of his 
nationality from his own lips. Before leaving, the 
conductor was presented with a gold-mounted ivory 
baton, surmounted by a crown and the initials 
"V.R.I.," in memory of his visit to Windsor. 



IV 

THE MAN : HIS TEMPERAMENT AND HIS METHODS 

So far, I have sketched an outline of Henry J. Wood's 
public career ; it remains to look a little closer into his 
daily life and to discover the secret of his unbroken 
record of success. This lies partly in temperament 
and partly in method. 

In the first place, he has that rare joy in his work 
which enables him to do it easily. Every branch of 
his profession conducting, accompanying, teaching 
claims in turn his whole-hearted enthusiasm. 
Whatever he is engaged upon becomes absorbingly 
interesting, because he views it in an ideal light. 
Consequently, for him there is no such word or thing 
as drudgery. His temperament has the buoyancy 
which makes the quest of perfection in art a glad 
rather than a painful thing. For most of us the 
pursuit is fraught with weariness and disappoint- 
ment. Not so for Henry J. Wood. His ideals, 
armour-plated with common sense, take a great deal 
of rough usage without losing their vitality. More- 
over, he has no false shame about his enthusiasms 
and aspirations, nor has he any difficulty in impart- 
ing them to others. He owes much of his success to 
this power of kindling interest in his own ideas and 

29 



30 HENRY J. WOOD 

hopes. A scheme, as propounded by him, is not a 
mere schedule of facts and figures. It leaps into life 
at once, with all its alluring possibilities and con- 
vincing results. If a question of resource arises he 
is ready provided ; if the idea needs illustration his 
pencil is as quick as his intelligence. His fervour, 
combined with his practical insight, is compelling. 
Directly a plan leaves his mind it is as good as 
accomplished. 

In spite of an engaging and sometimes almost 
boyish manner, his amiability covers an inflexible 
fibre of will not to be bent or broken. This is a 
natural safeguard to a man in his position. He 
follows his own instincts and judgments and is not 
easily influenced. If he accepts a conviction he does 
so with all the energy of his nature; if he rejects 
one, he does it with equal vehemence. It would be 
absurd, therefore, to pretend that he never made an 
enemy. 

Looking through the vast amount of music, new 
and old, which he has brought to a hearing during 
the last eight or nine years, the conviction grows 
upon us that Henry J. Wood has one of the first 
qualifications for a great conductor a taste which is, 
on the whole, wonderfully sure and broad. At times 
he has been rather severely criticised with regard to 
his choice of works. The question is difficult to dis- 
cuss, because it resolves itself so much into one of 
individual opinion. But perhaps few people bear in 
mind, when judging a conductor by his programmes, 
that he is not invariably master of the situation and 
has to gratify other tastes than his own. Unless he 



THE MAN: 31 

is running a series of subsidised concerts which have 
some distinctly educational or national aim in view, 
his first duty is to deal fairly and considerately with 
the paying public. The gentleman who vowed that 
his audience should hear Wagner's music until they 
did like it, deserved to lose the confidence of his 
public, and must certainly have lost that of his 
business manager, if he had one. 

A conductor must be neither a pedagogue nor a 
propagandist. This does not mean that he should 
put the names of composers into a hat and draw 
them out with impersonal disregard for results. He 
is certainly justified, within limits, in choosing the 
works with which he feels most sympathy. He 
must have a hand light enough to feel the mouth of 
the public, but he must not jag at the bit. There 
will be times when he will be doing mere justice in 
giving an unpopular work a second or third chance ; 
and again, if he has established a sympathetic current 
between himself and his audiences, he will realise 
when he has gone hopelessly beyond or beneath 
their standard of appreciation. Concerts are given 
for a variety of aims and reasons, for the most part 
too mysterious for investigation, the soundest of 
them all being to impart the greatest artistic enjoy- 
ment to the greatest number, while reaping at the 
same time a fair return on the original outlay. This 
commercial view will not satisfy the superior person. 
Yet I feel convinced that a series of programmes 
drawn up on the basis of the public taste say by 
plebiscite would have a greater artistic value than 
one built up by a committee of cultivated cranks. 



32 HENRY J. WOOD 

State-aided schemes have not half the vitality of 
commercial enterprises. No one who has followed 
the history of State-subsidised concerts and opera 
abroad can have failed to see how frequently they have 
failed in their main object the popularising of the 
best art. How many composers' lives have been em- 
bittered by the incompetence, prejudice or snobbery 
of a Hof-Intendant? In Russia where I have 
followed the system most closely it is a fact that 
some of the finest national masterpieces have only 
seen the light of publicity in spite and not because of 
this well-meaning official patronage. The frankest 
commercialism would do less harm to the wider 
interests of art. 

Here in England, where individual initiative meets 
with toleration, there is always an alternative for 
those fussy individuals who believe that the public is 
being deprived of some necessary article of musical 
diet. Let the devout disciple sell all that he hath 
and run free concerts of his own ; so he may supply 
the patent " frame-food " of his particular school to 
a stubborn and faithless world, who will only pay for 
what it can enjoy and digest. 

But I must return to my point which this digres- 
sion is only intended to strengthen that one of the 
secrets of Henry J. Wood's success lies in the fact 
that he acts as a sensitive and honest medium be- 
tween his art and the public; not lowering the 
standard of the former, yet paying judicious atten- 
tion to the requirements of the latter. The true 
secret of leading the public taste is to march in the 
front rank with it, not to goad it from behind with 



THE MAN: 33 

perpetual reminders of its national obligations, or 
reproaches upon its falling off from standards which 
have become hopelessly obsolete and outworn. 

Mr Wood's range of sympathy is very far-reaching 
and broadens continually. A few years ago doubts 
were expressed as to whether it extended back to 
Mozart, while it appeared to have left Brahms aside 
in the pursuit of more emotional and strongly- 
coloured art. Now, there is no doubt that it includes 
both these masters, as well as a number of realists 
and colourists who stand at the other end of the 
musical pole. To pretend that he has never been 
deceived in the value of a work, nor ever made an 
error in taste, would be to say he was not human. 
But one saving quality he possesses that of self- 
judgment. Consequently he seldom repeats a mis- 
take, and if, in his first impetuous rush for what 
seemed to him the ideal goal, he left something valu- 
able by the wayside, he will not be too indolent or too 
proud to return for it directly he is convinced of its 
worth. 

Another secret of Henry J. Wood's success is his 
gift of getting others to work with him rather than 
under him. He knows exactly what he wants and 
has the gift of lucid exposition. He is not satisfied 
with less than his full intention, but he arrives at it 
without undue fuss. Although he has imposed upon 
his musicians new methods which tend towards an 
almost meticulous thoroughness, they are with him 
to a man. They know that while he takes a full 
share of the work, he is willing to divide the honours. 
The gracious habit he has introduced here of 

C 



34 HENRY J. WOOD 

making his orchestra rise to receive the applause of 
the public, although I have heard it condemned as 
an affectation, is nothing more nor less than the 
outward sign of what he really feels that those 
who contribute to his success should also take 
part in it. 

With his friends and pupils it is just the same ; no 
one minds working hard in the service of a man who 
never relaxes his own efforts until his object is 
gained. In a word, Henry J. Wood understands 
the true meaning and magic of co-operation in 
labour. 

With the more intimate side of his character, that 
which belongs to his private rather than his public life, 
I am not actually concerned here. His friends do not 
praise him as perfect, because they feel sure that he still 
possesses latent powers that time alone can develop. 
He is one of the people in reality very rare whose 
growth one seems actually to feel and hear, so that 
intercourse with him brings a constant succession of 
agreeable surprises. To his intimate circle he 
appears lovable and sympathetic, an extraordinarily 
gifted personality, stimulating in serious moments, 
delightful in playtime, full of spirit and confidence, 
but untouched by the baser forms of vanity. Those 
who do not know him well lose the best he has to 
give, and perhaps no man needs a higher testimonial 
to his worth than the fact that his friendship grows 
more valuable with every year of possession. 

Such a man is born for success. In all probability, 
however, he would not have attained it so early in 
life had he not possessed, in addition to these gifts 



THE MAN: 35 

of temperament, the acquired virtues of industry and 
method. 

Unquestionably an idealist, he is not an ineffectual 
dreamer. His aspirations are positive things to be 
pursued and grasped, not merely sighed after and 
abandoned. No man has a keener sense of the 
importance of skilled craftsmanship, or is more alive 
to the danger of trusting to the inspiration of the 
moment. He believes that conducting, like all other 
branches of the musical profession, should be taught, 
and certainly must be learnt and practised. I do 
not for a moment suppose that his manner of con- 
ducting has not been duly considered ; at the same 
time it is no more artificial than the attitude of a 
man who desires to convey all his personality by 
means of gesture and expression must necessarily be. 
There is a class of conductor whose dignified rigidity 
confines his attention entirely to the first violins. 
There is another whose fussy energy reminds us of 
the itinerant musician who plays upon six instru- 
ments at once. Mr Wood belongs to neither. His 
movements are the reflection of his quick and glow- 
ing temperament. It is just because they are 
natural that they strike us as rather freer and more 
vehement than those of the average Englishman. A 
man less naturally agile and alert could certainly 
not copy Mr Wood's style with impunity. It would 
be like the efforts of the clown to follow the graceful 
athlete through the hoop. That this agility is per- 
fectly natural and easy to him no one can doubt 
who has watched his ways of doing other things. 
He does not pose as " dignified " or " magnetic," 



36 HENRY J. WOOD 

and is always amused at the layman's belief that 
" the conductor's eye in a fine frenzy rolling " counts 
for much in the interpretation of a masterpiece. 
Far from being self-conscious, he would unhesitat- 
ingly sacrifice elegance to effectiveness if necessary. 
He has discovered for himself the best way of play- 
ing on his instrument, and nothing else concerns him. 

Because of his belief in the religion of work, 
Henry J. Wood gives to every detail of it his close 
personal attention. Except a few medical specialists 
it is doubtful if any man in London gets as much 
into the twenty-four hours as he does. Not one of 
his talents is buried in a napkin. They are all 
bright with constant use and circulation. 

Mr W T ood has accumulated a splendid musical 
library. It has always been his desire to own the 
score and band parts of every work he conducted. 
All these are carefully studied and annotated. The 
bowing of the strings, the phrasing for the wind all 
are marked by his own hand. He not only prepares 
the works which he has in rehearsal, but is gradually 
studying and annotating in the same way all the 
masterpieces which he might at any time be called 
upon to conduct. It is difficult to give an adequate 
idea of the time and labour bestowed upon this kind 
of work, especially just before a long series of 
concerts like the " Promenades," at which a number 
of compositions are to be given for the first time. 

Then there are innumerable manuscripts : sym- 
phonies, concertos, symphonic poems and overtures 
sent him by budding geniuses, or, worse still, over- 
blown and still neglected geniuses, all demanding 



THE MAN: 37 

instant recognition due from a British conductor to a 
British composer. Many of these are, for various 
reasons, impracticable. The gifted neophyte will often 
make impossible demands upon the capabilities of 
even the most modern orchestra. Passages for wind 
instruments will appear in impossible clefs and so on. 
But many of the manuscripts require careful reading, 
and get it. I do not think that many incipient 
masterpieces are ruthlessly consigned to oblivion. 
On the contrary, in the case of a promising work 
which shows an inexperienced hand in orchestration, 
Henry J. Wood has been known to take great 
trouble in suggesting improvements the strengthen- 
ing of an effect here, the clearing of a muddy 
passage there all the thousand and one niceties of 
instrumentation in which a conductor is necessarily 
a connoisseur. 

Besides the revision and reading of scores and 
manuscripts, in ordinary times singing pupils follow 
in swift succession from breakfast to lunch -time. 
To spend a morning in Mr Wood's house is practi- 
cally to know what is going to happen in the world of 
vocal music. Then there are the orchestral rehearsals 
for the Queen's Hall concerts, and frequently two or 
three extra rehearsals in the week for private con- 
certs in which the band is engaged to take part. 

It has become quite the fashion for a young 
instrumentalist to make his or her dtbut in London 
with the assistance of Henry J. Wood and his 
orchestra. This is not surprising. Not only is he 
young enough to draw near to these beginners in 
sympathy and encouragement, but he is also a 




38 HENRY J. WOOD 

remarkably fine conductor of concertos. No doubt 
his long practice as a vocal accompanist has some- 
thing to do with this. He has that special tact 
which makes him mindful of the soloist's interests, 
while at the same time he does not allow the 
orchestral parts of the work to flag in meaning and 
spirit. The accompaniments of a classical concerto 
are too often made dull and perfunctory ; those of a 
modern one frequently degenerate into a noisy struggle 
for supremacy between the virtuoso and the orchestra. 
Mr Wood neither drowses over the accompaniments 
nor extinguishes the solo instrument. I recall in 
particular some performances of Schumann's Concerto 
in A minor, Saint-Saens's G minor Concerto, and 
Tchaikovsky's Concerto in B flat minor, which in 
every respect fulfilled one's ideal as regards accom- 
paniment. 

The thoroughness displayed in his preparation of 
scores and band parts extends also to his orchestral 
rehearsals. As regards tuning, he has adopted an 
admirable method. The orchestra assembles half 
an hour before a concert, each musician tunes his 
instrument, which has to "pass" the conductor 
before being taken on to the platform. In this 
way the public is spared that witches' prelude of 
cacophonous scraping and hooting which only the 
Shah of Persia considers the best thing in the pro- 
gramme, and the band starts, at least, with a uniform 
standard of accurate tuning. 

The distribution of Mr Wood's orchestra at Queen's 
Hall is in some respects unusual. Instead of the 
ordinary arrangement of the strings first violins on 



THE MAN : 39 

the left and second violins on the right of the 
conductor he groups all his first and second violins, 
one behind the other, on his left, keeping on his 
right the violas and 'cellos. Mr Wood has explained 
to me his object in this departure from precedent. 
Generally speaking, an orchestral score contains a 
preponderance of passages in which the phrasing for 
first and second violins is identical. The same 
applies to a great extent to the violas and 'cellos. 
By grouping in close proximity those instruments 
which have the greatest share of identical phrasing, 
a much better ensemble is obtained. The players 
feel each other more sympathetically, and in giving 
a lead the conductor does not lose even that fraction 
of time which is spent in turning from left to right. 
This arrangement has also the advantage of bringing 
the violas to the front of the orchestra, and so giving 
more prominence to the tenor part, which is generally 
the weakest in proportion to the other strings. In 
Mr Wood's band the double basses are not arranged 
in a circle, but grouped behind the 'cellos on the 
right. At present the wood-wind is blocked in the 
centre, with the brass in rather more extended order 
behind it. 

This arrangement is the result, so Mr Wood tells 
me, of hearing his orchestra conducted by other men. 
On those occasions he marks what seems to him 
deficient or exaggerate, and experiments until he 
gets a better balance of tone. If there existed a 
band perfect enough to dispense with a conductor, 
Mr Wood might be tempted to return to Spontini's 
method of allowing the wind and strings to sit where 



40 HENRY J. WOOD 

they pleased. This would give an ideally blended 
tone, but no conductor could take in all the players 
in a large orchestra unless they were arranged in 
ordered groups. 

Unlike so many musicians whose musical life is 
limited to the day's routine, Henry J. Wood's interests 
extend beyond his own doings. He never misses, 
if he can help it, any great musical event in London, 
the provinces, or on the Continent. Time is found 
for a flying visit to Leeds, Birmingham, Cologne, or 
Amsterdam, to hear any work that is new or of 
special interest. His enthusiasm for the achievements 
of other people is one of the most charming traits in 
his character. 

Seeing his extraordinary activity, people often 
wonder if he sleeps, eats and rests like other mortals. 
Thanks to the unremitting care of his wife, his health 
with one fortunately brief interval has always been 
equal to the tremendous strain he puts upon it. 

Music is nearly, but not quite, the whole of his 
life. He has other interests and recreations. As a 
boy he studied drawing quite seriously. Even now 
he knows what is going on in the world of pictures, 
and takes a sketchbook away on his holidays. He 
reads, too, about other things than music, and where- 
ever he goes a volume of Ruskin is sure to make its 
appearance out of his pocket or travelling-bag. He 
is a good billiard-player, manages a punt as skilfully 
as an orchestra, and is fond of cycling. Those who 
picture him as suffering perpetually from nervous ten- 
sion and over fatigue should see him coast from the 
top of Beachy Head with a stiff breeze in his wake ! 



V 

HENRY J. WOOD AS ORCHESTRAL CONDUCTOR 

WHEN we consider that Henry Wood's reputation 
has been made in spite of much competition, and 
has stood the test of close comparison with 
Lamoureux, Richter, Mengelberg, Weingartner, and 
even Nikisch in a word, with all the leading 
Continental conductors of the day it is surely time 
we ceased to discuss him as a "coming" man and 
frankly accorded him that place in the very front 
rank of his profession which is undoubtedly his due. 
Presumably we cannot believe in our luck in having 
produced a native conductor of the calibre of Henry 
J. Wood. How else can we account for such curious 
freaks of correspondence as that which recently 
appeared in the Pall Mall Gazette under the head- 
ing, Is Mr Wood a good conductor? 1 It is true 
that the replies showed an almost unanimous sense 
of appreciation. But the mere admission of such a 
correspondence into an important evening paper 
suggests a lurking scepticism which is by no means 
to be admired. Strange to say, this unworthy 

1 Pall Mall Gazette, October 7, 1903. 
41 



42 HENRY J. WOOD 

hesitation to accept Mr Wood as a "great" con- 
ductor is confined to a section of his own country- 
men. Foreigners in London are far more generous 
and outspoken in their estimation of his merits. In 
the chapter on "Henry J. Wood and Vocal Art" 
(page 72), I quote the opinion of Herr Otto Less- 
mann, one of the leading German critics. " I 
expected an excellent Capellmeister, but you had 
not prepared me for a second Nikisch," was the 
verdict of a distinguished Russian musician who 
had experience of all the great living conductors, 
and had played under most of them. I could easily 
multiply such outside testimonies to Mr Wood's 
worth, but the day has surely gone by when we 
must wait for the imprimatur of Leipzig or Berlin 
before pronouncing a musical judgment of our own. 
At the same time, when we read so much of the 
renaissance and progress of English music, and 
side by side with it such grudging praise of our 
- only English conductor, it becomes very clear 
where the spirit of patriotism in music draws its 
own lines of approval. 

Comparative criticism of individuals has its dis- 
advantages. The conclusions we draw from it must 
be dependent upon our personal estimation of 
the men compared. It remains, however, the surest 
method of arriving at a man's true place among 
his fellow-workers. I will therefore summarise the 
qualities which have come to be regarded as indis- 
pensable in a great interpretative conductor, and 
my readers must judge for themselves in what 
respect, if any, Henry J. Wood falls short of the 



AS ORCHESTRAL CONDUCTOR 43 

modern ideal as represented by such men as Richter, 
Weingartner, Mottl and others. 

The modern interpretative conductor is the joint 
creation of Berlioz and Wagner. The former was 
the prototype of the " virtuoso conductor." He 
treated the orchestra as an instrument the only 
one on which he could play. He insisted that the 
conductor, in order to play upon this greatest of all 
instruments, must have other qualifications besides 
those of the time-beater. He must be able to 
transmit his own feelings to his players and to be 
a guiding influence in emotion as well as in rhythm 
and tempo. 

Berlioz exhausted his sarcasm on the conductors 
of his day, and winds up his treatise on Instrumen- 
tation with a picture of self-satisfied incompetence 
turning from a butchered masterpiece with a cynical 
" Vce victis I " Wagner is not less severe upon con- 
temporary conductors, but his criticism is more 
re-constructive. When in later years he ceased to 
wield the baton, save on a few special occasions, he 
still cherished the hope of founding an ideal school 
in which singers and conductors might be educated 
to his mind. His scheme was never realised. 
" Nevertheless," says Felix Weingartner in his 
little book upon conducting, "Wagner passed on 
much of his experience and perception to younger 
men." Hans von Billow was the earliest to profit 
by this knowledge, and his readings of the Beet- 
hoven Symphonies may be regarded as the first 
fruits of Wagner's celebrated essay, "About Con- 
ducting." 



44 HENRY J. WOOD 

The functions of a conductor, as defined by 
Wagner, are to decide the tempo and to direct 
the attention of the orchestra persistently to the 
characteristic melody of a work. The one func- 
tion is dependent on the other, " since," he adds, 
" the right comprehension of the Melos is the sole 
guide to the true tempo." 

This is the letter of Wagner's intention. The 
spirit goes deeper, for it is essentially the same 
which enlightens all his writings on musical ques- 
tions, and practically amounts to this that music 
being the language of emotion, a conductor must 
interpret it in the light of feeling and expression. 
He must, in fact, use the same methods of interpre- 
tation as a pianist or singer would employ in a solo 
piece. The quality and degree of emotional eloquence 
which he infuses into his "reading " of a work depend 
as much on individual temperament as in the case 
of the singer or instrumental virtuoso. Here begins 
the vexed question of subjective interpretation, which, 
having been long since decided for the soloist, still 
crops up as a subject of acrimonious discussion for 
the conductor. 

I confess I do not understand the attitude of those 
people who see a danger to art in this question of 
individual interpretation. Their case seems to be 
this : that the world now goes to hear the virtuoso, 
not the composer. But since it is an absolute con- 
dition of musical art that it must reach us through 
two mediums of communication the instrument 
and the performer how can it be otherwise? A 
musical work without a performer has the same 



AS ORCHESTRAL CONDUCTOR 45 

half-reality of existence as an unborn infant. Some- 
one must bring it into the world must compel it to 
utter those sounds which are the proclamation of life 
itself. 

We have to accept music, then, on the terms of 
interpretation or not hear it at all. Perhaps we 
should not always be losers by such abstinence. 
" Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are 
sweeter," says Keats, with unconscious cynicism. 
We have often had occasion to feel the same, but 
only when the medium of communication has been 
painful or unsatisfactory. To talk about an " objec- 
tive " interpreter of an art, the sole function of which 
is to express emotion and to make us feel, seems 
altogether illogical. 

Music without subjective interpretation is the 
pianola and the orchestrion, the barrel-organ and 
the hurdy-gurdy ; and although all these mechanical 
contrivances may be better than the mts'mterpreia.- 
tions of some singers, players and conductors, yet 
no one will seriously contend that the element of 
individuality should be eliminated, or even reduced 
to a nonentity, in music. As a rule, the complaints 
against individual interpetation in music come from 
those whose emotional gamut is very limited in com- 
pass, and whose emotional tone is of the thinnest 
quality. Such people are as out of place in the 
concert-room as those of low physical vitality are 
in the football field. In these days of specialism 
it would not be a bad idea to organise concerts 
especially adapted for such constitutions. It would 
give employment to a considerable number of com- 



46 HENRY J. WOOD 

posers and executive artists of the mildly anaemic 
type. 

If we trace backwards the memory of some great 
work a piano sonata of Beethoven's, for instance 
do we not find that the most robustly individual 
readings of it are those which have remained most 
vividly with us and given the greatest joy in remem- 
brance? Who would forego these musical recollec- 
tions stamped with the emotional impress of the men 
who created them for us Liszt, Rubinstein, Von 
Billow, Balakirev or Henselt? Then, if our musical 
life depends so much on this re-creation of dormant 
sounds by an individual medium, why should it be 
impertinent for the conductor to breathe his own life 
and warmth into the music he directs ? Why need 
orchestral music reach us through colder or more 
impersonal channels than the rest? Granted that 
we need some sensitive medium to put us in touch 
with an orchestral work incarnate but unborn, then 
one of the first requisites in a conductor is indi- 
viduality of temperament, by which alone he can 
reveal its intimate and hidden spirit. Of course in 
this process of re-creation his personal emotions 
should be restrained by tact and a reasonable sense 
of responsibility to the composer; but this need not 
be carried so far as to extinguish individual intuition 
and all passion. A conductor must be something 
more than the conscientious guardian of a composer's 
offspring. If he submits his will and conscience too 
slavishly to that intangible power, "the composer's 
intention," he is almost sure to fail in the most 
important half of his duty to make the work a 



AS ORCHESTRAL CONDUCTOR 47 

living reality to those who hear it. After all, " the 
composer's intention " is a very undefinable tyranny. 
It is very precious to him so long as he fears for its 
abuse or misrepresentation ; but what becomes of it 
when, as frequently happens in the history of art, an 
interpretative artist ennobles and illuminates a "com- 
poser's intention " beyond his own recognition ? If 
he is wise he holds his tongue and accepts the child 
of his creation transformed as it may be by the hand 
of a beneficent fairy godparent. 

There are natures strong by reticence, just as there 
are natures strong by eloquence and communicative- 
ness. But it is difficult to see what part the former 
can play in an art whose function is the expression 
of emotion. As well set a blind man to paint frescoes 
as an inarticulate and unemotional man to interpret 
music. So, whatever pedants and conscientious 
objectors may say to the contrary, the really great 
interpretative artist is the one who can infuse the 
most of his soul's fire and his heart's blood into the 
silent and inanimate body of an unperformed score. 
He must wake it to existence with his own life, and 
urge it to fulfilment with his own breath until it 
palpitates and responds, " Be thou, spirit fierce, My 
spirit. Be thou me, impetuous one ! " 

Henry J. Wood is gifted to a remarkable degree 
with this power of transmitting his individuality to a 
work, of making it actual and convincing to his 
hearers. In this matter of vitalising what he renders 
I should unhesitatingly place him next to Nikisch 
among the interpreting subjective conductors. Per- 
haps at the outset of his career he was too unre- 



48 HENRY J. WOOD 

strained in his expression of individual temperament. 
Every work he touched he stamped with his own 
image, and the result has been some readings which 
were startling in their exuberance of spirit and 
intensity of colour. They interfered with our 
traditional views and enshrined ideals, and shocked 
as though the sunshine had been suddenly let into 
a mortuary chapel. Yet undoubtedly this exaggera- 
tion of the personal element which only pedants 
find it hard to forgive had the great advantage of 
making the music more real and penetrating to the 
mass of his hearers. Many of his interpretations of 
a few years back, which struck fastidious spirits as 
somewhat crude and overwhelming, actually drove 
certain works home to a half-educated public, which, 
with less vigorous treatment, might have failed of all 
effect. He is certainly a great teacher, though not 
of the intellectual and pedantic order like Hans von 
Billow. He demonstrates everything through his 
own feelings, and so reaches the heart rather than 
the head of his public. 



VI 

THE INTERPRETATIVE CONDUCTOR 

IT was perfectly natural, with his temperament, that 
he should have been attracted at first by the kind of 
music in which dramatic feeling and passion were 
predominant. To say that he has been enamoured 
of colour, of movement strained to violence and 
emotion strung to frenzy ; to say that he has felt the 
seduction of our complex modern orchestration with 
its inexhaustible kaleidoscopic effects, and has re- 
velled in richness of effect, is merely to call him a 
vigorous child of his generation. 

The course of his development as a conductor has 
been, as it were, inverted, and would have been 
impossible to a man who had begun his career ten 
years earlier ; for his first triumphs were with Wagner 
and Tchaikovsky, and he is now working his way 
back to Beethoven and Mozart. This must now 
become the natural direction for a young man of 
ardent temperament and a born musical colourist. 
But although his sympathies are undoubtedly matur- 
ing, and continue to include works that at first failed 
to rouse all his enthusiasm, he remains in his musical 
outlook essentially a modern of the moderns. This 

D 49 



SO HENRY J. WOOD 

is as it should be. A conductor must interpret for 
his own day, and it is far more reasonable and prac- 
ticable that he should bring a masterpiece out of the 
twilight of the past and set it in full view of his con- 
temporaries, than that he should attempt to carry 
back a whole generation to a forgotten " atmo- 
sphere " in which they can no longer breathe at ease. 
Your born antiquary will shudder at this ; but the 
public will never be antiquarian. It nurtures a 
robust faith that music was made for man, not man 
for music, and no more desires to return to harpsi- 
chords and viols and other obsolete instruments than 
it does to stage-coaches, perruques and rushlights. 
Such masterpieces as can be made to keep pace with 
us on the high road of progress will be carried for- 
ward with the moving generations ; those that need 
antiquarian accessories and a historical revival must 
inevitably be left by the wayside. Though why it 
should be more sacrilegious to interpret a Mozart 
Symphony in a modern that is to say, living spirit 
than to restore a Romney, or look at one by the 
help of electric light, is a problem for which I can 
find no solution. 

There are purists who would check any spon- 
taneous emotional thrill in the rendering of Mozart's 
music lest it should disturb their anaemic ideal of 
this master. Mozart, these cultured bores are always 
impressing upon us, was as prim as a schoolgirl and 
as brittle as a Dresden vase. He was all eighteenth- 
century sensibility, and fainted when the brass played 
too loud in one of his overtures. That may be. 
He probably had some weakness of the cardiac 



THE INTERPRETATIVE CONDUCTOR 51 

nerves. But perhaps he would have been equally 
overcome had he heard some twentieth-century in- 
terpretations of his own music from which a pedantic 
conscience has eliminated every charm and banished 
all that is human and touching. Mr Wood's Mozart 
seems to me unquestionably the Mozart who shone 
into the dark places of Tchaikovsky's heart, and 
softened and illuminated the poignant sadness of his 
melody. But the dramatic vigour, the warmth and 
gaiety of his Mozart interpretations no doubt seem 
quite brutal to those who respect the memory of this 
master by such decorous half-mourning effects. Their 
intention may be admirable, 

" But oh, when I am dead may none for me 
Invoke so drear an immortality ! " 

Another composer with whom Henry J. Wood is 
not supposed to be in complete sympathy is Brahms. 
No miracle-working image of any deity has been 
made to play into the hands of his priesthood, and 
lend himself to so much insincerity, as has this genial 
and deeply human composer. It is often impossible 
to recognise in the ugly wooden idol invested with 
academical robes, smothered in the incense of false 
praise and labelled Intellectuality in Music, the 
kindly, sane-minded and earnest composer, whose 
emotions are profoundly sincere although they move 
slowly and bring us no sensational thrills. 

In some recent interpretations Mr Wood has 
certainly dealt roughly with this idol of " intellectu- 
ality." But if he divests Brahms of his forbidding 
academic attributes, he gives us his human qualities 



52 HENRY J. WOOD 

in exchange. It is impossible to be bored by Mr 
Wood's Brahms as we have been sometimes by 
ponderous and authoritative readings of his works. 
He gives all the emotional element in his symphonies, 
and a great deal of that quiet, deep-set poetry which 
is sometimes wilfully ignored in the determination 
to use Brahms as- a cloak for the dulness of his 
disciples. We get also to the full that healthy and 
virile energy which are such marked characteristics 
of the First and Fourth Symphonies, while the dark 
and turbid passages in his instrumentation .seem to 
gain something in transparency and brightness in 
Mr Wood's hands. In time his readings of Brahms, 
which are a little too spirited to be mellow, will gain 
the one thing needful to their ideal conception an 
atmosphere of serenity which is at the same time far 
removed from dulness. It would not be surprising 
if he brought Brahms home to our common humanity 
and popularised him with Tchaikovsky and Richard 
Strauss. 

There is but one opinion, I think, as regards Mr 
Wood's conducting of Wagner. His repertory in- 
cludes all the well-known concert-room selections, 
and his readings are charged with emotional impulse 
and dramatic perception. So excellent is he in this 
respect that it seems a pity we cannot hear him 
conduct a series of Wagner operas. One of his 
finest Wagner interpretations is the Overture to The 
Flying Dutchman, to which he imparts a supernatural 
thrill and tragic intensity. That his irresistible 
nervous energy carries his audience off their feet in 
such a piece as The Ride of the Valkyries goes 



THE INTERPRETATIVE CONDUCTOR 53 

without saying. This, like the third movement of 
Tchaikovsky's "Pathetic" Symphony, appeals to one 
side of his temperament. Motion, flowing or spas- 
modic, suits him better than repose. No one can 
give a more realistic impression of the oncoming and 
passing away of rapid, overwhelming or riotous move- 
ment. Nor is he less impressive in his renderings of 
heavy and sustained motion. His interpretation of 
Siegfried's Funeral March from Gotterdammerung, 
for instance, is both dignified and profoundly touch- 
ing. The poetry and freshness of some of his per- 
formances of the Siegfried Idyll have dwelt long in 
my memory. In the Tannhauser Overture he is less 
successful, to my mind. His choice of such a slow 
tempo in this Mr Wood appears to follow the 
reading of Mottl seems to cool something of its 
Maenadic frenzy. It is one of the few works that 
have seemed to me to last too long in his hands. 
As a Beethoven conductor Henry J. Wood has far 
from said his last word. That he will make his full 
power felt here, as in the music of Wagner and 
Tchaikovsky, I feel no shadow of doubt. At pres- 
ent the Fifth and Ninth Symphonies have been his 
strongest efforts. He has given memorable perform- 
ances of both, which bore the impress of his person- 
ality, and differed in many respects from what we 
have grown accustomed to regard as ideal readings. 
Probably our estimate of Mr Wood as a Beethoven 
conductor has suffered a little from the habit of com- 
paring him with Richter, whose readings have now 
become traditional for many English music lovers. 
To them there is but one rendering of a Beethoven 



54 HENRY J. WOOD 

Symphony, and they are ready to apply the final 
clause of the Athanasian Creed to whosoever differs 
from their point of view. 

Having mentioned the name of Richter, I should 
go on to say that Henry J. Wood has the warmest 
admiration for this conductor, from whom in com- 
mon with all who have frequented his concerts he 
has undoubtedly learnt a great deal. But the differ- 
ence in years, in temperament, and in nationality, 
makes it altogether unprofitable to compare their 
respective readings of the same works. 

Mr Wood himself feels that his Beethoven read- 
ings are still in process of evolution, and that every 
time he performs the C minor Symphony he .sees 
some details in a fresh light, so that several years 
may elapse before a mature and definite interpreta- 
tion shall have become crystallised in his mind. 
Indeed, I do not think the word crystallisation would 
appeal to Mr Wood. To him it would sound too 
perilously akin to incrustation and stagnancy and all 
the processes of which he has the keenest horror. 

As regards the Ninth Symphony, Mr Wood is in 
complete sympathy with the choral ending, but thinks 
it rarely receives the ideal interpretation it demands. 
If a fine orchestral performance has to be followed 
by the singing of an indifferent or scratch choir, the 
impression of the earlier movements will be weakened, 
and, on the whole, it would be better to dispense with 
the Finale entirely. 

With the works of Richard Strauss, Henry J. Wood 
seems to sympathise almost as closely and compre- 
hendingly as with those of Tchaikovsky. When 



THE INTERPRETATIVE CONDUCTOR 55 

he returned from Amsterdam, overflowing with en- 
thusiasm for Bin Heldenleben and the rest, one felt 
sure that this complete assimilation of the Strauss 
genius would reveal itself before long in some won- 
derfully vivid and convincing performances of the 
tone-poems. He never wavered from the first in 
his estimation of these latest examples of the modern 
spirit. He had faith in them and insight into their 
profound psychological significance. To hear him 
talk of them and explain them awoke one's interest 
and confidence before one had heard a note of the 
music. He has given us nothing finer among all 
his readings of modern music than his latest perform- 
ances of Don Juan and Ein Heldenleben. 

In the former he keeps us at a white heat of 
interest, pity and terror. We are made to feel from 
first to last the tremendous import of this tragedy ; 
to love, to suffer, to weary and to pass to annihila- 
tion with this grandiose figure, whose hell was as- 
suredly on earth, since he carried the flame of desire 
and the worm of disenchantment in the heart of an 
idealist. 

Personally Mr Wood's reading of Ein Helden- 
leben seems to me more intelligible and satisfying 
than that of the composer himself. The tempo of 
many of the melodies is less hurried, which lends 
more grace and poetry to the love episode in which, 
under Strauss's baton, the companion represented 
by the solo violin seemed often to find herself 
breathless in her efforts to be coquettish and allur- 
ing. 

I have given a brief review of some of his greatest 



56 HENRY J. WOOD 

achievements, but how much is still left unsaid ! His 
work during the comparatively few years of his 
activity has covered so wide a field and been so 
universally excellent. From the past to the present 
day, from Haydn to Strauss ; from the old world 
to the new, from Saint-Saens, Grieg and Elgar to 
Edward Macdowell, everything he has touched has 
been set to the best of his ability in an ideal light. 
Can we refuse any longer to acknowledge him as a 
great and active musical force ? 

Besides individuality of temperament, another 
quality is expected from the modern conductor 
/\ individuality of tone. Even the same piano will 
respond differently to the fingers of a succession of 
pianists, and the same orchestra will produce a 
distinctly different tone-effect under different con- 
ductors. But the individuality of a conductor's 
tone is something much more definite and tangible 
than that of the virtuoso. Ysaye, for example, will 
get a quality of tone from the strings we never hear 
under anyone else. Nikisch's brass might come from 
a different world to that of any other conductor. 
With Mr Wood the "elegiac" tone of the violas 
receives a fuller value than in most orchestras. This 
may account to some extent for that phenomenon of 
" a large voice singing in the inner parts," which has 
been observed in the Queen's Hall Orchestra by a 
writer in the Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musik- 
gesellschaft. 1 In what degree this individuality of 
orchestral tone depends on the conductor has been 

1 Music in England, by Charles Maclean. Jahrgang I, Heft. I, 
2, Oct. -Nov. 1899. 




HENRY J. WOOD 
From a -^holograph by G. Pendry 



THE INTERPRETATIVE CONDUCTOR 57 

admirably defined by an English critic in a recent 
article on "Orchestral Ensemble" 1 : 

"By his insistence on phrasing, on bowing, on 
reserve of force or the reverse, on his power of 
obtaining the most delicate pianissimos ranging up 
the dynamic gamut to the keenest fortissimo, he 
creates an individual orchestral tone. If he is 
wanting in will power, or wanting in the ideas which 
should set his will in motion, he will produce, even 
from the finest strings, a dull level forte the col- 
lective, normal neutral effect of orchestral playing. 
With the brass and wood-wind there is just as much 
opening for the conductor's individuality, only here 
the individual player has more scope, as in solo 
work his own tone is not blurred by that of other 
instruments of the same timbre. Then there is the 
power of obtaining proportion. Some conductors 
allow their strings to soar away so that in tutti the 
delicate passage work given to the wood-wind goes 
for nothing ; or if he be rather a charlatan, a con- 
ductor may bring out passages, say, for the double 
basses which will drown his violins. This proper 
proportion for the musical ideas to be expressed is 
the real ensemble playing of the orchestra; and 
concerning that ensemble I find that many erroneous 
ideas are current." 

But although a conductor may get an individual 
tone from his orchestra, it does not follow that the 
quality of it will be rich or sonorous, delicate or 
brilliant, unless he himself has ? clear perception of 

1 " Orchestral Ensemble," by Edward A. Baughan, The Monthly 
Musical Record, April i, 1903 (Augener & Co.). 



58 HENRY J. WOOD 

all the virtues which go to the making of really 

beautiful tone. 

/In vocal arid in instrumental art, beauty of tone 

*\ /represents the sunnnum bonum to Henry J. Wood. 
)( Consequently he has spared no pains to arrive at it 

/ \^n the Queen's Hall Orchestra, first by having regard 
to the quality of the instruments, and then by insist- 
ing on the individual capacity of the players. The 
quality of the strings at Queen's Hall is infinitely 
superior to that of any foreign or provincial band we 
have ever heard in London, and their excellence of 
ensemble, whether in cantabile or detached chords, 
is owing, no doubt, to the careful bowing of all the 
parts by the conductor himself. 

In the wood-wind, where so much depends on the 
individual player, Mr Wood has been careful to 
secure the services of admirable soloists, and to 
encourage a spirit of virtuosity which would certainly 
shock the martinet conductor whose idea of ensemble 
is based upon the extinction of all spontaneity in his 
musicians. It was this lack of individual sentiment 
which left me so unresponsive to the well-drilled 
efforts of the Meiningen Orchestra. The conductor's 
government should not be a crushing autocracy. 
There should be space to expand and breathe, 
and even to feel, under the imminence of his baton. 
This beneficent and gracious sway of power is one of 
the secrets of Nikisch's art. I think Mr Wood 
shares it to the full, so that really good musicians 
find it as much an education as a drill to play under 
his direction. 

The quality of the brass at Queen's Hall is actually 



THE INTERPRETATIVE CONDUCTOR 59 

as fine as that of the wood-wind, although Mr Wood 
has been sometimes accused of abusing its colouring 
power. The average amateur critic invariably fixes 
upon "the brass" as a safe subject of comment. 
When anything goes wrong in that department it 
becomes evident to the least cultivated ear. The 
listener who would never detect an ugly vibration in 
a clarinet, for instance, can hear a slight flatness in 
the horns or roughness in the trombones, and is 
delighted with his critical acumen. He probably 
does not realise that the horns are the enfants 
terribles of the orchestra ; there is no relying on their 
behaviour in company. 

As a matter of fact, the Queen's Hall brass is not 
nearly so blatant as that of most German orchestras ; 
on the other hand, it does not enter into Mr Wood's 
colour-scheme to subdue it to nonentity as Lamoureux 
did. We must bear in mind, too, that while the 
timbre of the brass instruments is improving in 
brightness and sonority year by year, the quality of 
the strings remains as before. It seems inevitable 
that before long the whole question of orchestral 
balance will have to be read justed on a different basis 
from that which pertains at present. 

Mr Wood is gradually making important additions 
to the wind instruments of his band, and improving 
those he has already. He has recently had made 
to order : four tubas, especially for his Wagner 
repertory; two cors de bassette and four oboes 
d'amor. He is very fond of compositions with 
interesting and unusual combinations for wind 
instruments, and has given several beautiful per- 



60 HENRY J. WOOD 

formances of Mozart's " Mauerische Trauermusik," 
scored for strings, two oboes, one clarinet, one cor 
de bassette, two horns, and one contra-bassoon 
(ad lib). 

Among Mr Wood's distinguishing qualities as a 
conductor is the remarkable rhythmic perception 
which is so lacking in most of our English conductors 
as to amount almost to a national deficiency. Our 
sense of rhythm seems distinctly limited, and any- 
thing unusual in the distribution of accent appears 
to disconcert our straightforward ideas. But if it be 
true, as Sir George Grove has said, that complexity 
of rhythm makes for ultra-emotion in music, perhaps 
the secrets of its subtle combinations and alternations 
can only be perceived by a musician of an exception- 
ally mobile and emotional temperament. 



VI I 
HENRY J. WOOD AND RUSSIAN MUSIC 

THERE is no more interesting feature in Mr Wood's 
career than the way in which he has assimilated 
the Slavonic spirit in music and given to the 
compositions of the New Russian School interpre- 
tations which breathe the very atmosphere and 
aroma of nationality. In his sympathy with this 
school, in his perfect comprehension of the emotional 
realism which lies at the heart of all Russian art and 
literature, he is at least as Russian as the Russians 
themselves. 

His very external appearance is far more Slavonic 
than English. We may see his counterpart in the 
concert- rooms, laboratories, or university class-rooms 
of Moscow and Petersburg ; wherever, in fact, the 
youthful and enthusiastic " intelligentsia " are gathered 
together, you will find a younger brother of Henry J. 
Wood among them. 

Instances of this transmigration of nationalities 
have not been rare in literary history, although it 
is generally the spirit rather than the flesh that 
proclaims it. Keats, the son of a livery-stable 
keeper at Edmonton, was the re-incarnation of the 

61 



62 HENRY J. WOOD 

Greek soul. Heine must surely have been born 
half a Frenchman. Chamisso, of French birth and 
parentage, left the Germans a legacy of songs which 
breathe the true Teutonic feeling. So, perhaps, in 
Newman Street, some Russian domovoi, or house- 
spirit, presided at the birth of our English conductor. 
At anyrate it is to young Russia that we must look 
for any parallel to his fiery energy, and the unabashed 
enthusiasm which by hoping all things has realised 
not a few. 

The writer of an article, " Recent Russian Music 
in England," in the Edinburgh Review, for October 
1901, sets himself with some ingenuity to account 
for the " extraordinary boom " in Russian music 
which was started in England about five years ago. 
Two factors, he thinks, may have given an impulse 
"to this unexpected move" in the direction of 
Russian music. First, it seems to him probable that 
the Russian Maecenas and music publisher, Mons. 
Belaiev who ran a series of Russian concerts at the 
Paris Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 may have used 
"his influence" to forward the cause of Russian 
music in England. This theory is easily disposed 
of. Mons. Belaiev never, by subsidies or other 
means, did anything to push the Russian propaganda 
in England ; and this for the simple reason that 
like most untravelled foreigners he probably did 
not regard London as a musical centre worthy of 
exploitation. Besides which, Mons. Belaiev, as a 
business man, would certainly consider it better 
policy to let a genuine and unsubsidised enthusiasm 
effect in England what it may not have done in 






HENRY J. WOOD AND RUSSIAN MUSIC 63 

Germany, and certainly would never have done in 
France. 

The second reason brought forward in The 
Edinburgh to account for the spread of Russian 
music in England is the marriage of Mr Henry J. 
Wood to a lady of Russian birth. Of course, from 
time immemorial matrimonal alliances have changed 
the political destinies of nations, but instances in 
which a wife has affected the stream of tendency in 
art or literature are surely of rarer occurrence. If 
not, historians must find fresh reasons for the great 
points of departure in art. In the modern impulse 
which found its expression in Beethoven, in the 
reaction from romanticism to realism which gave 
us a Millet for an Ary Scheffer cherchez le 
mariage. 

It seems to me that the writer in the Edinburgh 
Review may be reasoning backwards. Might not 
Mr Wood's existing sympathy for Slavonic music 
which originated with the performance of " Eugene 
Oniegin" in 1891 and his resemblance to her own 
national type, have been attractions in the eyes of 
a Russian woman ? One thing is certain : much 
as Mrs Wood has done to make her native music 
known by her own singing, she has her husband's 
ultimate reputation too much at heart to influ- 
ence him in favour of a narrow and short-sighted 
specialism. 

But it is easy to explain why Russian music began 
to attract and interest the English public, and to 
show that it was in fact no " unexpected move " at 
all, but a logical development in the history of taste* 



64 HENRY J. WOOD 

In due course every new vibration in the musical 
world abroad reaches us here. Strange as it may 
appear, there are still people in England who 
believe that they have recently discovered Wagner. 
Twenty years hence the same people will be prick- 
ing their ears at the mention of Richard Strauss. 
The formation of a National School of Music in 
Russia is one of the most recent phenomena in 
musical history. Originated about 1836, by Glinka 
and Dargomijsky, and revived in the sixties by Bala- 
kirev in one direction and by Rubinstein in .another, 
this movement, from its starting-point in Eastern 
Europe, travelled slowly westwards and reached us 
rather later than Germany, Belgium and France. That 
it should reach all countries in time was inevitable, 
because it was too remarkable a development to be 
ignored. That it was more hospitably received here 
than in other lands is partly due to the fact that in 
spite of a small section of musical " Protectionists " 
we are less self-centred and, though slow, quite 
as receptive as other nations. But long before the 
compositions of the new Russian school arrived 
here they had attracted the attention and admira- 
tion of some of the choicest spirits in the musical 
world of Germany. Liszt, who, like Goethe, never 
grew intellectually hide-bound as age advanced, 
welcomed them for their freshness and sincerity. 
Von Biilow, who presumably knew dross from pure 
metal and had no Russian wife to influence his 
convictions received them with generous apprecia- 
tion. Not only did he think highly of the more 
modern composers, but he paid the highest tribute 



HENRY J. WOOD AND RUSSIAN MUSIC 65 

to Glinka, who, he declared, breathed the very 
spirit of Beethoven. 

In Belgium the devoted labours of Countess 
Mercy Argenteau gave a kind of vogue to Russian 
music; while at the same time the note of gush 
with which she wrote of it rather hindered 
than helped its cause in the eyes of serious 
musicians. In France, where Russian concerts were 
frankly subsidised, the impression it first made 
does not seem to have been lasting, except in the 
case of a few musical specialists like Lamoureux 
and Chevillard, who thought very highly of the 
originality and masterly orchestration of the Russian 
school. But it never acquired the same popularity 
in France as in England. There the "Pathetic" 
Symphony is not a certain "draw" as it is in 
London ; and not long since I observed that a 
French critic, referring to the "Casse- Noisette" 
Suite, spoke of the composer as " the insipid 
Tchaikovsky." Such criticism is almost enough to 
shatter "the alliance of hearts." But the most 
essential qualities of the Russian school would 
hardly appeal to French taste, since with them art, 
dramatic and musical, has always retained a certain 
classical formality which is inseparable from their 
point of view. 

The responsibility of introducing Russian music 
into England does not belong in the first instance 
to Henry J. Wood only the credit of making it 
popular. Before he took up the baton at Queen's 
Hall, Russian compositions sometimes found a place 
in the programmes of the Crystal Palace, the Phil- 

E 



66 HENRY J. WOOD 

harmonic and the Richter Concerts. To Sir Augustus 
Manns is due, I believe, the honour of first introduc- 
ing a work by Tchaikovsky to the British public. 
But these isolated examples took no grip on the 
public taste; whether because the musical world 
was too pre-occupied with Wagner, or because the 
interpretations they received lacked the glow of 
enthusiasm and conviction does not greatly matter. 
Their time was to come. Tchaikovsky himself failed 
in England as indeed on the Continent generally 
to make any very profound sensation with his own 
works. Yet no sooner did Henry J. Wood give a 
performance of the " Pathetic " Symphony at Queen's 
Hall than it assumed a magnetic interest for the 
public. In his hands it acquired a penetrative force, 
an intense and emotional reality which were irre- 
sistibly communicated to the entire audience. And 
this is surely one of the highest functions of the 
interpretative conductor to create that "aesthetic 
commotion" which for the time being fuses a 
mass of individuals into complete solidarity of 
feeling and impression. 

There have been many readings of this Symphony 
by Lamoureux, Manns, Mottl, Richter a whole 
array of names which convey the assurance of 
poetical insight and sentiment. Yet no reading 
we have ever heard seems to me to bring out the 
temperament of the composer and the national 
temperament both embodied in this work so 
clearly as that of Henry J. Wood. The psycho- 
logical drama which unfolds itself in the first 
movement " the programme I never intend to ex- 



HENRY J. WOOD AND RUSSIAN MUSIC 67 

pound," as Tchaikovsky himself has said seems to 
contain much that is purely self-revelation, almost 
biography. In his letters he speaks of the tears he 
shed while composing it, and declares he expressed 
in it the torments of a hyper-sensitive soul, " such 
as cannot be put into words." Here we need an 
interpreter who will not be deterred by any false 
dignity from following these movements of intoler- 
able suffering, of hopeless yearning and passionate 
regret, if need be, even to the verge of frenzy and 
hysteria. 

Again, the second movement with its vigorous, 
characteristic rhythm (the folksongs in 5/4 time 
are nearly all suggestive of briskness rather than of 
languid grace); and the allegro molto vivace, which 
seems the response of a whole race to an urgent 
desire for movement and expansion, demand an 
altogether unusual energy and exuberance of spirit. 
Finally, the long adagio lamentoso, which, with its 
overwhelming weight of gloom and suggestion of 
fathomless obscurity, might stand as the musical 
interpretation of Claudio's speech in Measure for 
Measure : 

" Ay, but to die and go we know not where ; 
To lie in cold obstruction and to rot ; 
This sensible warm motion to become 
A kneaded clod." 

This asks for its strongest interpretation a mind 
which still has youth and courage, and stands remote 
enough from the last act of the tragedy not to shirk 
its complete and sincere realisation. With the excep- 
tion of Nikisch, I know no conductor but Henry 



68 HENRY J. WOOD 

Wood who is equal to these varied demands upon 
his emotional temperament. 

If Mr Wood has endowed every bar of the 
" Pathetic " Symphony with such intense and vital 
significance that it has become for thousands the 
expression of their intimate spiritual experience, he 
has equally given soul and substance to another 
great work of Tchaikovsky's the Fifth Symphony. 
During the last year this has become almost as 
acceptable to the public as the "Pathetic" itself. 
All the other symphonies by this composer seem to 
gain in interest and meaning when he directs them, 
not excepting the delightful Second, or Malo-Russian 
Symphony, with its peculiar national flavour, so 
different from the more positive and direct music 
of Great Russia. 

As to the rest of the Russian composers of that 
school in which nationality is the predominating 
element, Henry J. Wood is not less successful in 
his interpretations of their works. Probably because 
of their exotic character they do not always make 
such a strong appeal to the public, but many of them 
have become favourites because of their rich and 
attractive orchestration. 

If a man has at command a superb instrument 
like a first-rate modern orchestra, it is perfectly 
natural and legitimate that he should desire to 
show what can be done with it. Such examples of 
orchestration as Rimsky - Korsakov's " Capriccio 
Espagnol," the Dances from Borodin's opera, Prince 
Igor, the Overture "1812," or the " Casse-Noisette " 
Suite, offer the same temptations and opportunities 
to the virtuoso-conductor and his orchestra that a 



HENRY J. WOOD AND RUSSIAN MUSIC 69 

Liszt concerto offers to the virtuoso-pianist. "All 
this elaborate dexterity of instrumentation and pro- 
fusion of tone-colour only serves to conceal poverty 
of thought," cry the purists and moralists. This is 
not invariably the case ; but, even if it were, conceal- 
ment, at present, would be something gained. In 
music, as in dress, we owe it to society to cover 
our deficiencies; and a robe of many colours and 
elaborate embroidery is pleasanter to look upon than 
a figure of meagre proportions presented in all the 
simple dignity of the nude. Since the quality of 
inspiration seems to be running poor, let us be 
grateful for such mastery of the accessories as make 
it presentable and interesting. The secret of the 
success of Russian music with the English public 
lies in the fact that it condescends to be attractive 
and even a little exciting. But it would never have 
pleased, as it has done, had not some curious freak 
of fate given us a native conductor who was in com- 
plete sympathy with the spirit of it. 

To a conductor of individuality and warm tempera- 
ment, orchestral colour and brilliancy will always 
appeal strongly. To the audience, such show pieces 
as I have mentioned are the entrees and zakouska 
which relieve the more substantial courses. Deprived 
of them, some of us would share the feelings of poor 
Miss Bates in Emma when Mr Woodhouse sent the 
sweetbreads and asparagus away from table. Happily 
the rebukes addressed to Mr Wood on this point have 
been disregarded, so that we can still indulge our 
depraved appetites from time to time, when he and his 
band revel in the orchestration, rich, clear, piquant 
and exhilarating, of the New Russian School. 



VIII 

HENRY J. WOOD AND VOCAL ART 

AT twenty-nine Henry J. Wood had fairly estab- 
lished his reputation as an orchestral conductor. It 
remained to be seen whether he was equally efficient 
in the handling of choral masses. It is well-known 
that success in one branch by no means implies it in 
the other, and that a man who can drill a choir into 
tolerable efficiency may fail to give even a moderately 
satisfactory rendering of a Beethoven symphony or 
a Strauss tone-poem, and vice versd. Yet if we 
accept Wagner's view, that the conductors of his 
day failed to find the proper tempo because they 
knew nothing of song, then it follows that the ideal 
conductor is one who is equally endowed with vocal 
and orchestral perception. 

Henry J. Wood seems to fulfil this primary con- 
dition of good conducting. 

Before he came before the public as an interpreta- 
tive conductor of symphonic music he had had, as 
we have seen, considerable experience in opera. He 
had also been a teacher of singing the one and only 
branch of his art he has ever taught and, in his own 
words, " as earnestly devoted to vocal as to orchestral 
art." 

70 



HENRY J. WOOD AND VOCAL ART 71 

It was probably with a view of extending his 
experience as a choral conductor that in October 
1897, while in the full swing of his work at Queen's 
Hall, he accepted the directorship of the Nottingham 
Sacred Harmonic Society. In the course of a year's 
work there, he not only put the choir on a very 
efficient footing, but founded the Nottingham City 
Orchestra of 100 members. In 1900 he was also 
appointed conductor of the Wolverhampton Festival 
Choral Society. Both these posts had to be re- 
linquished in consequence of his increasing work 
in London. 

So far his most notable success as a choral con- 
ductor was achieved at the Sheffield Festival of 
1902. It was on the occasion of the last rehearsal 
at Sheffield that he addressed the chorus as follows : 

" Words ! Words are our masters ! When you 
go to hear a bad opera at the theatre, and listen with 
rapt attention to the principal comedian, what attracts 
you ? You are able without effort to hear every 
word he sings therein lies the pleasure. You forget 
that he has no voice. Now think, when you are 
singing choruses at the Festival, what a delight to 
the public it will be if they can hear every word. 
Also, I want your faces to portray the whole 
range of emotion contained in the words you are 
singing. I must impress upon you that unless the 
nerve current sent from the brain to express feeling 
or emotion is shown upon the countenance, the vocal 
mechanism will be unable adequately to give effect 
to the expression intended by the words. All sincere 
emotion is expressed in facial nerve thrills. The 



72 HENRY J. WOOD 

meaning of uttered words should be written on every 
face, for unless you can express feeling and emotion 
in your face you cannot express feeling and emotion 
in the tones of your voice. Your attention and 
anxiety must not be centred upon * mere notes.' 
Try to sing words of scorn with an absolutely im- 
passive face ! You cannot do it ; your voice will 
belie your words. See to it that you are living, and 
show that you have human pulses beating." 

It will be interesting to quote the opinion of the 
well-known Berlin critic, Herr Otto Lessmann, upon 
Mr Wood's conducting at this Festival. After com- 
menting somewhat sarcastically upon the methods 
of English conductors in the old pre-Richter days, 
he goes on to say : 

" In Mr Wood the English capital has now found 
a young native conductor who carries his vocation 
considerably beyond the late Sir Arthur Sullivan. 
If he is sometimes more animated in his movements 
than seems necessary when he has a well-trained 
orchestra before him, still he communicates a truly 
artistic spirit to the players, and by the help of his 
strong musical perception carries the band along 
with him, so that they follow wheresoever he leads, 
drawn, as it were, by the spell of his will and desire. 
Here we have a born conductor, a man with sensi- 
tive and vibrating nerves, who has made an inti- 
mate study of each work he performs, and breathes 
into them all a new tone-life. Mr Wood accom- 
plished a giant's task at Sheffield, for besides the 
chief orchestral compositions he conducted the 
greater part of the choral works and solo pieces, 



HENRY J. WOOD AND VOCAL ART 73 

and, in spite of all this labour, the freshness he 
managed to impart, even to the very last note, was 
something to marvel at. Two personalities now 
represent a new epoch in English musical life 
Edward Elgar as composer and Henry J. Wood 
as conductor." 

This generous tribute from a German critic to an 
English musician did not stand alone. The chorus 
of praise was almost universal, but, far from turning 
the conductor's head, those who know him well are 
aware that he was not even elated by his success. 
On the contrary, this Festival brought home to him 
very forcibly how far, for unavoidable reasons, such 
performances fell short of his ideal. Not that he 
had any fault to find with the response the chorus 
made to his wishes, nor, judged by the ordinary 
standard of these things, were they less well pre- 
pared than they ought to have been ; but this ex- 
perience confirmed his belief that choral training 
in England has become fundamentally lacking in 
system and thoroughness. The individual standard 
is not high enough. From this time dates his de- 
termination to realise a long-cherished desire to 
form a London choir which should approximate 
more closely to his ideal of what such a body 
should be. 

It is a fact that while orchestral music in London 
has made remarkable strides of late years, choral 
music, once such a salient feature of English life, 
seems to have suffered a temporary decline. The 
work of Henry Leslie, John Hullah and others has 
found no continuators. The Royal Albert Hall 



74 HENRY J. WOOD 

Choral Society, a large body of singers whose 
energies are devoted to works of heavy calibre, is 
almost the sole survivor of past glories. 

In an interesting and unconventional circular, 
issued a few months ago, Mr Wood formulated his 
views on choral music, and announced his intention 
of establishing in London a select choir of one hun- 
dred voices. This has since become an accomplished 
fact. This circular is in many respects unique. It 
contains so much sound common sense and glowing 
enthusiasm a combination quite characteristic of 
the man himself that I cannot do better than give 
a re"sum of the scheme it sets forth. The great 
drawback in existing choral societies is, Mr Wood 
believes, the want of systematic instruction given to 
members individually. Time at disposal will not 
admit of it, and the chief regard is necessarily paid 
to the general effect of the work in hand. 

For more than fifty years, in Orchestra, with much 
care and patience, the ensemble, the expression, the 
colouring, the shading, the attack effects which add 
so much to the influence and power of music have 
advanced nearer to perfection. Latterly, thanks to 
Wagner, Hans von Billow, Richter, Levi, Lamoureux, 
Mahler, Weingartner, Kes and Nikisch, the Orchestra 
has arrived at results which formerly were not thought 
possible. Choral singing cannot be said to have 
risen to the same level; excepting effects, such as 
piano and forte, crescendo and diminuendo, when does 
one hear real dramatic feeling, expression rightly 
given, or colour displayed in ordinary choral music ? 
Expression includes the whole art, for, as truly said 



HE NRY J. WOOD AND VOCAL ART 75 

by Rossini, " Be convinced that the Musical Art is 
entirely an ideal art an art of expression." 

After remarking on the variety of really artistic 
choral singing, or even pure chamber-music singing, 
and the consequent neglect of glees, madrigals and 
other choral masterpieces, Mr Wood goes on to say, 
" Why should not a best Choir be got together on 
the same principle as a best Orchestra namely, by 
selection of the fittest and trained on the same 
lines by constantly working together and desiring to 
achieve the best?" And here the all-important 
question of training comes in. " A student of an in- 
strument, if properly taught, is taken through a 
technical course which embodies the chief diffi- 
culties likely to be met with in the best classics ; 
thus should it be in the training of a choir, and the 
whole body of members should be treated as a band 
of instrumentalists, in the conviction that perfection 
of ensemble is dependent on the excellence of the 
individuals." 

Then, as to the qualifications of these individuals, 
he continues : 

" There are many sympathetic and refined voices 
without power sufficient for large halls, and these have 
seldom chance or opportunity of studying classical 
choral singing, or improving themselves in con- 
certed music ; yet there are many works of the old 
masters which are heard to best advantage when 
given by such refined voices. A special study will 
therefore be made of a capella works, in confidence 
that the lovers of music will welcome their appear- 
ance." 



76 HENRY J. WOOD 

The following definition of a perfect choir is, I 
venture to say, one that could only have been formu- 
lated by a conductor as well balanced on the orches- 
tral as on the choral side : 

" A truly efficient or ideal choir is one comprising 
several smaller choirs, each complete in itself, to 
which special work may be delegated, whilst com- 
bining the whole body as occasion demands ; and in 
this ' selection of the fittest ' the emulation to achieve 
the best will be stimulated. Singers should not forget 
that they are to be players each a player on the 
instrument of song" 

Coming to the practical working of the Choir, Mr 
Wood makes it clear that he only wants members 
who are as willing to work as himself. Whether 
engaged or not upon the special composition being 
rehearsed, they will be required to attend the re- 
hearsals. There will be thirty choir practices during 
the season, a large proportion of which will be de- 
voted to the separate rehearsing of the male and 
female voices. The Choir is at present in its infancy, 
but it is safe to predict its ultimate success. The 
quality of the voices selected is far above the aver- 
age. Before each rehearsal Mr Wood gives a short 
lecture on the principles of voice production vocal 
attack, the setting of tone, and so on. His intense 
interest in and love of vocal music show that his 
musical temperament is, in spite of certain super- 
added qualities, British at the very core. Henry 
J. Wood believes that at the present day vocal art 
suffers from the want of some natural and scientific 
basis on which to build it up. In painting, literature 






HENRY J. WOOD AND VOCAL ART 77 

and musical composition we still have our ideal 
models to which every new work is more or less 
referred. No matter how far the modern spirit 
may lead us, the basis is always there. Only in 
singing do we seem to have lost the very foun- 
dations of the art. Individual theories, like so many 
will-o'-the-wisps, beset the singer's path wherever he 
turns. Originality of inspiration is one thing ; 
original methods of teaching are too apt to de- 
generate into quackery and eccentricity. The sing- 
ing-masters who produce voices out of all parts of 
the human body as jugglers produce paper fans 
and rabbits from all parts of a room seldom turn 
out a beautiful or natural instrument. It is almost 
as grievous to think of the lost voices, ruined and 
annihilated by bad teaching, as of the lost souls in 
the world. Things will not improve until we recon- 
struct an art of singing something defined and 
solid, built up, like the old Italian school, out of 
simple, natural, yet perfectly scientific, elements. 

Acting on this conviction, Mr Wood asks his choir 
to go back to the beginning of things. The short 
addresses with which he prefaces his rehearsals will, I 
sincerely hope, be published some day for the use 
of the world at large. Succinct, admirably clear, and 
based on profound experience, they bear out the 
dictum of a great French writer "Plus on sait.plus 
on simplified At each rehearsal a fresh point is dis- 
cussed and explained, with the help of diagrams, so 
that gradually each member of the Choir will be in 
possession of a true and natural system of voice pro- 
duction, while the general effect will be a beauty and 



78 HENRY J. WOOD 

unity of tone impossible in ordinary choirs, where 
each member sings upon his or her method, however 
vicious or defective. 

Simple vocalisations followed by one or two 
madrigals or part-songs are all that Henry J. Wood 
expects from his choir in these early days. It is 
certain, however, that we may look eventually for 
very perfect and delicate renderings of choral works. 
But this will not be until Mr Wood is satisfied that 
he has given to all his singers as great a command 
of their voices as his orchestral players have of their 
instruments. 

These are indeed counsels of perfection. Some 
will consider such ideal aims a dream of visionary 
youth unattainable by ordinary mortals. We are 
so easily satisfied with the second best. But three 
things are in favour of the realisation of the scheme : 
Mr Wood's contagious enthusiasm ; his willingness 
to share the labours equally with the success of those 
who work for him; and finally, his fixed determina- 
tion never to leave anything to chance. So we may be 
sure that before long another of his wishes will 
be accomplished, and that " concerts of a capella 
music, and choral works from the great store of 
vocal art treasures, will become as attractive to 
music-lovers as the present Wagner and Tchai- 
kovsky Orchestral Concerts." This signifies nothing 
less than a complete revival of the essentially 
national art of choral singing. When that is 
effected we shall, if we are generous, place a 
double crown of bays on the head that has planned 
and carried out so much not for the glorification of 



HENRY J. WOOD AND VOCAL ART 79 

a false patriotism, but for the true advancement of 
music in England. 

The past career of Henry J. Wood has been brief 
but effectual ; his present is full to overflowing with 
constructive activities ; his future, I am convinced, 
can be summed up in two words continual develop- 
ment. 

One may be permitted to lift a corner of the veil 
which conceals his hopes and ambitions for the years 
to come. Besides the training of the Select Choir, 
now on the road to accomplishment, he has ideas 
and plans for a model concert-hall which may 
some day house a permanent orchestra. He has 
also in his mind a scheme for some ideal concerts, 
to consist partly of a capella vocal music and partly 
of chamber music. For these concerts, which would 
aim at very artistic and finished performances of 
music which is comparatively rarely given, Mr Wood 
could utilise small sections of his choir and orchestra. 
The Queen's Hall Wind Quintet, with Mr Wood 
at the piano, is already winning repute for its delicate 
and polished performances of the Mozart Quintets 
for pianoforte, oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon, 
and other kindred compositions. It may therefore 
be reasonably hoped that such a series of chamber 
concerts, which would appeal to all musical con- 
noisseurs, will actually take place before long. 

Mr Wood has been looking forward for many years 
to the day when he could give such performances of 
Bach's "Matthew Passion," the "Easter Oratorio" 
and the " Christmas Oratorio " as would satisfy his 
own fastidious ideal. For this task he has been 



8o HENRY J. WOOD 

preparing his scores for the last five years, and his 
edition of the " Matthew Passion " is now complete. 
Existing editions do not meet all his practical re- 
quirements. These performances, when they take 
place, will aim at perfection of detail without any 
suppression of the emotional qualities of the works. 
They will be re-creative and modern, not " historical " 
in the antiquarian sense. This method of preparing 
his own scores is one on which Henry J. Wood lays 
the greatest stress. He has five different editions of 
the " Messiah " from which he has conducted the 
rehearsals of the Nottingham Choir ; and the score 
which he intends to use at the Sheffield Festival of 
1905 will sum up all the results of years of study and 
practical experience. 

Having reviewed the work of the last eight years, 
I am surely justified in my hopes for those that still 
lie before him. His whole life is set to one end 
progress moral, intellectual and musical. What his 
energies are bent upon he is sure to achieve, for his 
courage never flags ; nor is there any danger of his 
^acquiring a kind of spiritual portliness with middle 
age. But should he fail to accomplish some or any 
of the tasks he has set himself, he has already done 
what would suffice for the life-work of most men. 
Henry J. Wood is the democratic force in music. 
His greatest service to his art and his country lies 
undoubtedly in the fact that he has liberated music 
from its exclusive sphere and offered it to the 
people. 



A LIST OF WORKS 

PERFORMED BY HENRY J. WOOD AND THE QUEEN'S 

HALL ORCHESTRA FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 

LONDON OR ENGLAND. 

18951903. 



LIST OF WORKS. 

THE following list of novelties performed by Henry 
J. Wood has been prepared with all possible care 
from the programmes of the Symphony, Promenade, 
and Sunday Concerts. At the same time, as it is 
the first attempt to draw up a separate list of the 
new works produced under his direction, a few errors 
may have been made. Works without any letter 
appended were produced for the first time in any 
country. Works marked E, for the first time in 
England. Those marked L, for the first time in 
London. It must be clearly understood that London, 
in this list, excludes the Crystal Palace Concerts at 
Sydenham. 

AMERICAN. 

MacDowell, Edward. "Indian Suite." Op. 48. Prom., 
Oct. 23, 1901. (E.) 

BELGIAN. 

Depret, E. Requiem Mass. Sym. Con., Dec. 10, 1898. (E.) 
Swert, Jules de. Concerto for 'cello, No. 2, C minor. Op. 

38. Prom., Sept. 18, 1902. (E.) 

Ysaye, Eugene. Poeme No. 3, " Chant d'Hiver." Caprice 
for violin and orchestra. Ysaye Con., May 18 
1901. (L.) 

83 



84 HENRY J. WOOD 

BRAZILIAN. 

Miguez. Symphonic Poem, "Ave Libertas." Op. 18. 
Prom., Sept. 12, 1899. (E.) 

BRITISH. 

Ames, J. C. Petite Suite for Orchestra. Prom., Nov. 
28, 1896. 

- March, "Last of the Incas." Prom., Oct. 5, 1901. 
Ashton, Algernon. Turkish March, "Bag and Baggage." 

Prom., Oct. 18, 1900. (L.) 
Bainton, Edward. Symphonic Poem, "Pompilia." Prom., 

Oct. 8, 1903 
Bantock, Granville. Orchestral Poem, "Thalaba the 

Destroyer." Fest. Con., May 4, 1900. (L.) 

- Suite, "Russian Scenes." Prom., Oct. 3, 1903. 

(L.) 
Bell, W. H. Symphonic Poem, " A Song of the Morning." 

Prom., Oct. 29, 1901. 
Blake, Ernest. Symphonic Poem, "Alastor." Prom., Jan. 

21, 1902. 

- Introduction to "The Bretwalda." Prom., Sept. 



Boughton, Rutland. Symphonic Poem, " Into the Ever- 

lasting." Op. 9. Prom., Sept. 22, 1903. 
Bowen, York. Symphonic Poem, "Lament of Tasso." 

Prom., Sept. i, 1903. 

Bright, Dora. " Liebeslied." Prom., March 6, 1897. 
Bunning, Herbert. "Shepherd's Call." Prom., Aug. 28, 

1895. 
- Suite Villageoise. Op. 45. Prom., Sept. 25, 1897. 

(L.) 
Clutsam, G. H. Carnival Scenes. Prom., Sept. n, 1895. 



LIST OF WORKS 85 

Cobb, Gerard. Romance for Orchestra. Prom., Oct. 31, 

1901. (L.) 
Coleridge-Taylor, S. Four Characteristic Waltzes. Prom., 

Sept. 22, 1898. (L.) 

Overture, " Song of Hiawatha." Fest, Con., May 3, 

1900. (L.) 

"Toussaintl'Ouverture." Sym. Con., Oct. 26, 1901. 

Coverley, Robert. Four Sketches for Orchestra. Prom., 

Sept. 27, 1899. (E.) 

Cowen, Frederic. Overture, "Butterfly's Ball." Sym. 
Con., March 2, 1901. 

Orchestral Poem, "A Fantasy of Life and Love." 

Sym. Con., Nov. 23, 1901. (L.) 

Indian Rhapsody. Prom., Oct. i, 1903. (L.) 

Cox, G. W. Pastoral Suite, " Ewelme." Op. 2. Prom., 

Sept 10, 1903. 
Crowther. Concertstiick for piano and orchestra. Prom., 

Sept. 27, 1899. (E.) 
Elgar, Edward. Three Bavarian Dances. Op. 27. Prom., 

Oct. n, 1898. (L.) 

Meditation, "Lux Christi." Fest. Con., May 9, 1899. 

(L.) 

" Chansons de Nuit et de Matin." Op. 15. Prom., 

Sept. 14, 1901. (L.) 

"Elevation" in B flat. Op. n. First concert per- 

formance. Prom., Sept. 21, 1901. (L.) 

Two Military Marches. Op. 39. Prom., Oct. 22, 

1901. (L.) 

Prelude and Angels' Farewell ( " Dream of Geron- 

tius"). Op. 38. Sym. Con., Feb. 20, 1901. (L.) 

Incidental music to "Diarmid and Grania." First 

Concert Performance. Sym. Con., Jan. 18, 1902. 
Elvey, George. Gavotte a la mode Ancienne. Prom., 
Dec. 5, 1896, 



86 HENRY J. WOOD 

Esposito. Cantata " Deirdre." Sym. Con., Feb. 26, 1898. 

(L.) 
Farjeon, H. Concerto in D, piano and orchestra. Prom., 

Sept. 3, 1903. (L.) 
Ford, E. "Scenes des Bacchanales." Prom., Jan. 16, 

1897. 
Forsyth, C. Concerto G minor, viola and orchestra. 

Prom., Sept. 12, 1903. 
Fox, G. Fantasia, "The Boy and the Butterfly." Prom., 

Nov. 6, 1900. 
Frewin, T. H. Descriptive Overture, "The Battle of 

Flowers." Prom., Aug. 31, 1895. 

Ballade for orchestra, " Mazeppa." Prom., Sept. 26, 

1896. 

Sketches for orchestra, "The Seven Ages of Man." 

Prom., Sept. 10, 1897. 

Overture, "Bellona." Prom., Oct. 13, 1898. 

Gatty, N. Concert Allegro for piano and orchestra. Prom., 

Oct. 6, 1903. 

German, Edward. Bourre'e, Gigue and Minuet from 
"Much Ado About Nothing." First concert 
performance. Prom., Oct. i, 1898. 

Three Dances from " Nell Gwyn." First concert per- 

formance. Prom., Sept. 20, 1900. 

Symphonic Poem, " Hamlet." Sym. Con., Oct. 29, 

1898. (L.) 

Holbrooke, Josef. Variations for orchestra on "Three 
Blind Mice." Op. 48. Prom., Nov. 8, 1900. 

Tone picture, "The Skeleton in Armour." Prom., 

Sept. 6, 1902. (L.) 

Concerto dramatique, piano and orchestra. Prom., 

Aug. 27, 1903. (L.) 

Horrocks, Amy E. Orchestral Legend, " Undine." Prom., 
Feb. 6, 1897. 



LIST OF WORKS 87 

Horrocks, Amy E. Orchestral Ballad, " The Romaunt of 

the Page." Prom., Oct. 6, 1899. 
Lucas, Clarence. Minuet from comedy, "Anne Hathaway." 

Prom., Oct. 2, 1896. 

Overture, " Othello." Prom., Sept. 20, 1898. 

Overture, "As You Like It." Prom., Sept. 20, 

1899. 

Overture in D, "Macbeth." Op. 30. Prom., Sept. 

28, 1901. (E.) 
Macbeth, Allan. Serenata for strings. Prom., Sept. 22, 

1896. (L.) 
Mackenzie, A. C. Recitation with orchestra, "Eugene 

Aram." Prom., Oct. 2, 1895. (L.) 

Three Dances (Entr'actes) from " The Little Minis- 

ter." First concert performance. Sym. Con., Feb. 

5, 1898. 
O'Neill, Norman. Overture, "In Autumn." Prom., 

Oct. 26, 1901. 
Parry, C. Hubert H. Magnificat for soprano solo, 

chorus and orchestra. Sym. Con., Feb. 19, 

1898. (L.) 
Pitt, Percy. New Suite in four movements. Prom., Aug. 

25, 1895. 

Coronation March. Prom., Sept. 23, 1896. 

Miniature Suite, "Fetes Galantes." Prom., Dec. 12, 

1896. 

Concertino in C minor for clarinet and orchestra. 

Prom., Oct. 9, 1897. 

Overture, "The Taming of the Shrew." Sym. Con., 

March 12, 1898. 

Air de Ballet for strings. Prom., Sept. 9, 1899. 

Suite, " Cinderella." Prom., Oct. 14, 1899. 

Ballade for violin and orchestra. Sym. Con., Feb. 

24, 1900. 



88 HENRY J. WOOD 

Pitt, Percy. Symphonic Prelude, "Le Sang des 
Cre"puscules." Fest. Con., April 30, 1900. 

Ballet Suite, "Dance Rhythms." Prom., Nov. 7, 

1901. 

Suite, "Paolo and Francesca." First concert per- 
formance. Fest. Con., April 28, 1902. 

Three old English Dances, "King Richard II." 

First concert performance. Prom., Oct. 22, 1903. 
Reed, W. H. Valse Brillante. Prom., Sept. 22, 1898. 

Overture, "Touchstone." Prom., Oct. 17, 1899. 

Valse Elegante. Prom., Oct. 30, 1900. 

Symphonic Poem, "Among the Mountains of 

Cambria." Prom., Feb. i, 1902. 
Ronald, Landon. Suite de Ballet. Prom., Nov. 3, 

1900. 
Roze, Raymond. New Suite, " Sweet Nell of Old Drury." 

First concert performance. Prom., Oct. 19, 1901. 
Scott, Cyril. Symphony No. i A minor. Op. 22. Prom., 

Aug. 25, 1903. 
Squire, W. H. Entr'acte for orchestra, " Summer Dreams." 

Prom., Sept. 4, 1897. 

Entr'acte, "Sweet Briar." Prom., Sept. 24, 1898. 

Entr'acte, "Slumber Song." Prom., Sept. 16, 

1899. 
Stanford, Villiers, C. Suite of Dances orchestrated by 

composer. Prom., Aug. 28, 1895. 
Steggall, Reginald. Dramatic Prelude, " Oreithyia." Prom., 

Oct. 24, 1901. 
Vicars, Harold. Prelude, "Rosalind." Prom., Oct. 2, 

1895. 
Wallace, Sutcliffe. Two Dances for orchestra. Prom., 

Oct. 12, 1899. (L.) 
Wallace, William. Suite, " PeUleas and Mdlisande." Prom., 

Sept. 8, 1903. (L.) 



LIST OF WORKS 89 

Waud, J. Haydn. Comedy overture. First performance 

in original form. Prom., Oct. 9, 1899. 
West, J. E. Recitation with orchestra, "King Robert 

of Sicily." Prom., Oct. 8, 1896. 
Wood, Arthur H. Suite for orchestra. Prom., Sept. 30, 

1902. (L.) 
Woods, F. Cunningham. Suite in F for small orchestra. 

Prom., Sept. 19, 1901. 

DUTCH. 

Averkamp. Symphonic Ballad, "Elaine and Lancelot." 

Prom., Aug. 28, 1902. (E.) 
Blockx, Jan. Five Flemish Dances. Prom., Sept. 6, 

1899. (E.) 

Hollander, B. Fantasie Pastorale, for violin and orchestra. 
Op. 26. Sym. Con., Feb. 24, 1900. (E.) 

FINNISH. 

Jarnefelt, Armas. Symphonic Poem, " Korsholm." Prom., 

Sept. 18, 1902. (E.) 
Sibelius, Jean. Suite for Orchestra, " King Christian II." 

Prom., Oct. 26, 1901. (E.) 

Symphony No. i, E minor. Prom., Oct. 13, 1903. 

(E.) 

FRENCH. 

Bourgault-Ducoudray. Prelude to Act II., "Thamara." 
Prom., April 3, 1897. (E.) 

Suite of Greek Dances, "Le Carnaval d'Athenes." 

Sunday Con., Feb. 17, 1901. (E.) 

Bruneau, Alfred. Four preludes from "1'Ouragon." 
Prom., Sept. 4, 1902. (E.) 



90 HENRY J. WOOD 

Chabrier,E. "Joyeuse March." Prom., Sept. 12, 1896. (E.) 

Slavonic march from " Le Roi malgre lui." Prom., 

Sept. 19, 1896. (E.) 
Chaminade, Ce'cile. Suite d'orchestre, " Callirhoe." Prom., 

Sept. 3, 1896. (E.) 
Chausson, Ernest. Symphonic Poem, "Viviane." Sym. 

Con., May 31, 1900. (L.) 
De'libes, Le'o. Polonaise and ballet music from " Kassya." 

Prom., Jan. 9, 1897. (L.) 
Dubois, Theodore. Three orchestral pieces from " Xaviere." 

Prom., Sept. 5, 1896. 
Erlanger, F. D. d'. Second Suite Symphonique. Prom., 

Sept. 18, 1895. 

Faur, Gabriel. Suite, " Pelleas et Mlisande." First con- 
cert performance. Prom., Sept. 18, 1902. 
Franck, Csar. Symphonic Poem, " Le Chasseur Maudit," 

Sym. Con., March 20, 1897. (E.) 

Variations Symphoniques for piano and orchestra. 

Prom., Oct. 23, 1902. (E.) 
Guilmant, A. March Fantasia. Op. 44. Prom., Sept. 10, 

1896. (L.) 
Indy, Vincent d'. Chansons et Danses. Op. 50. Prom., 

Sept. 23, 1899. (E.) 

Trilogy, "Wallenstein." Parts 2 and 3. Prom., 

Sept. 2, 1902. (E.) : 

Entr'acte, " L'Etranger." Prom., Oct. 23, 1903. (E.) 

Itasse, Le'on. Rhapsodic Espagnole. Prom., Oct. 8, 

1896. (E.) 
Joncieres, Ballet music from "Le Chevalier Jean." Prom., 

Nov. 14, 1896. (L.) 
Lalo, Edouard. Suite for orchestra, " Namouna." Prom., 

Oct. 24, 1896. (E.) 
Second Suite for orchestra, " Namouna." Prom., Oct. 

9, 1900. (E.) 



LIST OF WORKS 91 

Lenormand. Concerto F minor for piano and orchestra. 

Prom., Oct. i, 1903. (E.) 
Litolf. Scherzo from Piano Concerto D minor. Op. 102. 

Sym. Con., June 19, 1897. (E.) 
Massenet. Overture, "Phedre." Prom., Oct. 2, 1895. ( L -) 

Meditation from Opera, "Thai's." Prom., Aug. 

21, 1895. (L.) 

Overture to "Le Cid." Prom., Oct. i, 1896. (E.) 

Rhapsodic and March du Cid. Prom., Oct. 3, 

1896. (E.) 
- Suite, "Scenes Hongroises." Prom., Oct. 13, 

1898. (L.) 

Suite "Les Erinnyes." Sunday Con., Jan. 8, 1899. 

(E.) 

Ballet music from "Herodiade." Prom., Sept. 21, 

1899. (L.) 

" Le Sommeil de Cendrillon " and Menuet. Prom., 

Sept. ii, 1899. (E.) 

Pierne, G. Suite, " Izeyl." Prom., Jan. 23, 1897. (E.) 
Rabaud, H. Eglogue, "Poeme Virgilien." Op. 7. Prom., 

Sept. 21, 1899. (E.) 
Saint-Saens, C. Prelude et Cortege from " Dejanire." 

Prom., Sept. 5, 1899. (E.) 

Overture, "Les Barbares." Sym. Con., Dec. 7, 

1901. (E.) 
Thierot, F. Sinfonietta in E. Op. 55. Prom., Nov. 7, 

1896. (E.) 
Tinel, E. Overture, "Godoleva." Prom., Sept. 27, 

1900. (E.) 

GERMAN. 

Albert, Eugene d'. Concerto for 'cello and orchestra. 
Op, 20. Sunday Con., Jan. 20, 1901. (L.) 



92 HENRY J. WOOD 

Becker, Hugo. Concerto in A for 'cello. Prom., Sept. 30, 

1903. (L.) 
Becker, Reinhold. Huldigung's marsch. Act III., "Frauen- 

lob." Prom., Sept. 29, 1897. (E.) 
Beethoven. Duet in G for two flutes. Prom., Nov. 9, 

1900. (E.) 
Bruch, Max. New Suite for violin and orchestra. Nov. 

2, 1903. St James's Hall Concert. 
Dittersdorf. Symphony, "Actseon." Prom., Oct. 20, 

1899. (E.) 
Draeseke, F. Tragic Symphony, No. 3 in C. Op. 4. 

Sym. Con., Feb. 27, 1897. (E.) 
Floersheim. Miniature Suite for orchestra. Prom., Oct. 

8, 1901. (E.) 
Goetz. Ouverture " Francesca da Rimini." Prom., Oct. 29, 

1902. (L.) 
Goldmark. Introduction to Act II. of "Die Kriegs- 

gefangene." Prom., Sept. 19, 1899. (E.) 
Frischen, J. Mood Picture, " Herbsnacht " and a Rhenish 

Scherzo. Prom., Oct. ir, 1902. (E.) 
Handel. Concerto in F for two wind orchestras. Prom., 

Oct. i, 1903. (E.) 
Hartmann, E. Overture, " Runenzauber." Prom., Sept. 14, 

1897. (E.) 
Haydn, Michael. Symphony in C. Op. i, No. 3. Prom., 

Sept. 14, 1899. (E.) 
Huber, Hans. Symphony No. 2, E minor. Op. 115. 

Prom., Jan. 31, 1902. (E.) 
Humperdinck. Introduction, Act II., to " Hellafest " and 

11 Kinder-reigen " (Konigskinder). Sym. Con., Feb. 

27, 1897. (E.) 
Kistler, Cyrill. Chromatic concert valses from "Eulen- 

spiegel." Prom., Aug. 10, 1895. ( L -) 
March, " Festklange." Prom., Sept. 23, 1895. (E.) 



' LIST OF WORKS 93 

Kistler, Cyrill. Festmarsch for Orchestra. Op. 44- 

Prom., Sept. 19, 1896. (E.) 

Klughardt. Festival Overture. Op. 54. Prom., Oct. 17, 

1901. (E.) 

Koessler, Hans. Symphonic Variations. Prom., Jan. 28, 

1902. (E.) 

Mahler. Symphony No. i in D. Prom., Oct. 21, 1903. (E.) 

Moskowski. " Malaguena " (Introduction and Ballet music 

to "Boabdil"). Prom., Aug. 28, 1895. (L.) 

Introduction, dance of Fairies and March of Dwarfs 

from Ballet* "Laurin." Op. 53. Prom., Sept. 17, 
1896. (E.) 

Polish Dances for orchestra. Prom., Oct. 7, 1899. 

(E.) 
Mozart. Allegro in D (last movement of a Symphony). 

Ysaye Con., May 17, 1900. (E.) 
Nicode. Symphonic Variations, E minor. Prom., Sept. 10, 

1896. (L.) 
Raff. Concerto for 'cello and orchestra. Op. 123. Prom., 

Oct. 22, 1903. (L.) 
Schillings, Max. Symphonic Prologue, "King GEdipus." 

Prom., Sept. 27, 1902. (E.) 
Schumann, George. Dance from "Amor and Psyche." 

Prom., Oct. 24, 1901. (E.) 

Symphonic Variations on Chorale, "Wer nur den 

lieben Gott." Prom., Jan. 23, 1902. (E.) 

Overture, " Liebesfriihling." Prom., Jan. 25, 1902. 

(E.) 
Schytte, L. Concerto for piano and orchestra. Op. 28. 

Prom., Jan. 21, 1902. (E.) 
Straesser, E. Concerto in D for 'cello and orchestra. 

Prom., Oct. 9, 1903. (L.) 
Strauss, Richard. Prelude to Act I., "Guntram." Prom., 

Oct. 2, 1895. (E.) 



94 HENRY J. WOOD 

Strauss, Richard. Festmarsch. Op. i. Prom., Oct. 6, 
1898. (E.) 

Serenade for wind instruments in E flat. Op. 7. 

Prom., Nov. 6, 1899. (E.) 

Love scene from " Feuersnoth." Sym. Con., Feb. i, 

1902. (E.) 

Symphonic Fantasia, "Aus Italien." Op. 16. Parts 

i and 2. Prom., Aug. 27, 1903. (E.) 
Thuille, L. Romantic Overture. Prom., Sept. n, 1902. 

(E.) 
Umlauft, Paul. Prelude to Opera, "Evanthea." Prom., 

March 27, 1897. (L.) 
Valentin, Karl. Festmarsch. Op. 29. Prom., Sept. 22, 

1898. (E.) 
Volbach, Fritz. Symphonic Poem, " Es waren zwei Konigs- 

kinder." Prom., Oct. 12, 1901. (E.) 

Symphonic Poem, "Ostern." Prom., Nov. 2, 1901. 

(E.) 
Wagner, Richard. " Tannhauser's Pilgrimage" (original 

version). Sym. Con., Feb. 10, 1900. (E.) 
Wagner, Siegfried. Introduction to Act III. of "Der 

Barenhauter." Prom., Sept. 15, 1899. (E.) 

Introduction to Act III. of Valse at the Fair from 

" Herzog Wildfang." Prom., Oct. 31, 1901. (E.) 
Wolf-Ferrari. Chamber Symphony in B flat. Op. 8. 
Prom., Sept. 4, 1903. (E.) 

ITALIAN. 

Burgmein. Fantasie Hongroise. Prom., March 13, 

1897. (E.) 
Celega, N. Symphonic Poem, "The Heart of Fingal." 

Prom., Oct. i, 1901. (E.) 
Franchetti. Symphony E minor. Prom., Oct. 8, 1898. (E.) 



LIST OF WORKS 95 

Leo, Leonardo. Sinfonia from Oratorio, "Sant Elena al 

Calvario." Prom., Sept. 13, 1899. (E.) 
Mascheroni. Grande Valse Espagnole. Prom., Sept. 9, 

1899. 

Simonetti. Madrigale for small orchestra. Prom., Sept. 30, 
1899. (E.) 

POLISH, CZECH AND HUNGARIAN 

Bendl, Karl. Siidsclavische Rhapsodic. Op. 6. Sym. 

Con., Feb. n, 1899. (E.) 
Bloch, Josef. Suite "Poetique" for orchestra. Op. 26. 

Prom., Oct. 10, 1901. (E.) 
Dvorak. Symphonic Poem. "Der Wassermann." Prom., 

Nov. 14, 1896. (E.) 
Symphonic Poem. " Die Mittagshexe." Op. 108. 

Prom., Nov. 21, 1896. (E.) 
Symphonic Poem. "Die Waldtaube." Op. no. 

Prom., Oct. 10, 1899. (L.) 
Symphonic Poem, " Heldenlied." Prom., Oct. 20, 

1899. (L.) 
Erkel. Overture, " Hunyady Laszlo." Prom., Aug. 30, 

1902. (L.) 

Liszt. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 6 in G. Prom., Oct. 3, 

1898. (L.) 
Moniuszko. Mazur from Opera, "Halka." Prom., Oct. 

8, 1898. (E.) 
Nesvera. Overture, " Waldesluft." Prom., Oct. 3, 1903. 

(E.) 
Scharwenka. Prelude to " Mataswinka." Prom., Oct. 2, 

1895. (E.) 
Suk, J. Suite, "A Fairy Tale." Op. 16. Prom., Oct. 6, 

1903. (E.) 

Weingartner. Symphony No. 2. E flat. Op. 29. Prom., 
Sept 24, 1901; (E.) 



96 HENRY J. WOOD 

RUSSIAN. 

Arensky. Second Suite, "Silhouettes." Op. 23. Prom., 
Jan. 30, 1896. (E.) 

First Symphony, B minor. Op. 4. Sym. Con., May i, 

1897. (E.) 

Pianoforte Concerto. Prom., Oct. 14, 1903. (E.) 

Balakirev. Overture on Three Russian Themes. Prom., 

Sept. 26, 1899. ( E -) 

Symphony in C. Prom., Sept. 26, 1899. (E.) 

Bleichmann. Suite de Ballet. Prom., Oct. 19, 1899. (E.) 
Borodin. Danse Polovtsienne from opera, " Prince Igor." 

Sym. Con., April 3, 1897. (E.) 

Symphony, No. i, E flat. Sunday Con., Jan. 27, 

1901. (L.) 

Cui, Cesar. Suite miniature orchestrated by composer. 
Prom., Sept. i, 1897. (E.) 

Premier Scherzo. Prom., Sept. 29, 1899. (E.) 

Dargomijsky. " Danse Cosatschoque." Prom., Jan. 9, 

1897. (L.) 

Glazounov. Symphony No. 5, B flat. Op. 55. Sym. Con., 
Jan. 30, 1897. (E.) 

Scenes de Ballet. Op. 52. Prom. Con., Sept. 24, 

1896. (E.) 

Carnaval Overture. Op. 45. Sym. Con., May 8, 

1897. (E.) 

Symphony No. 6, C minor. Op. 58. Sunday Con., 

Jan. i, 1899. (E.) 

Suite from Ballet "Raymonda." Op. 57a. Sym. 

Con., Nov. 25, 1899. (E.) 

Ballet music, "Ruses d'Amour." Op. 61. Prom., 

Nov. i, 1900. (E.) 

"Chant du Menestrel" ('cello solo and orchestra). 

Op. 71. Prom., Sept. 24, 1901. (E.) 



LIST OF WORKS 97 

Glazounov. Overture, Solennelle. Op. 73. Prom., Oct. 
29, 1901. (E.) 

New Ballet, "The Seasons." Op. 67. Part I. 

Prom., Oct. 17, 1901. (E.) Part II. Prom., Oct. 
19, 1901. (E.) 

- Polka for strings, "Les Vendredis." Prom., Oct. 21, 

1899. (E.) 
Ippolitov-Ivanov. Caucasian Sketches. Op. 10. Prom., 

Sept 7, 1899. (E.) 
Liadov. Valse badinage. Prom., Aug. 26, 1899. (E.) 

- Polka for strings, "Les Vendredis." Prom., Oct. 21, 

1899. (E.) 
Liapounov. Overture, Solennelle. Prom., Sept. 21, 1901. 

(E.) 
Moussorgsky. "Une nuit sur le mont chauve." Sym. 

Con., Feb. 19, 1898. (E.) 

March in A flat. Sym. Con., March 5, 1898. 

(E.) 
Napravnik. Romance and Fandango. Prom., Sept. 3, 

1897. (E.) 

Rachmaninov. Pianoforte, Concerto No. i, L. minor. 

Prom., Oct. 4, 1900. (E.) 
Rimsky-Korsakov. Overture, " Nuit de Mai." Prom., 

Aug. 21, 1895. (L.) 

Capriccio Espagnol. Op, 34. Prom., Sept. 24, 

1896. (E.) 

Symphonic Suite, " Scheherazade." Op. 35. Prom., 

Dec. 5, 1896. (E.) 

- Suite from Ballet, " Mlada." Sym. Con., Nov. 12, 

1898. (L.) 

Fantasia on Servian Themes. Op. 6. Sunday Con., 

Jan. 15, 1899. (E.) 

Fantaisie Russe, B minor, violin and orchestra. Op. 

33. Ysaye Con., May 31, 1900. (L.) 
G 



98 HENRY J. WOOD 

Rimsky-Korsakov. Symphony No. 2, "Antar." Prom., 
Sept. 19, 1900. (E.) 

Concerto for piano, C minor. Op. 30. June 22, 

1903. St James's Hall. 

Night on Mount Triglav. (" Mlada," Act III.) Op. 

10. Prom., Oct. 10, 1903. (E.) 

Serov. Dance Cosaque. Prom., Sept. 15, 1897. (E.) 
Sokolov. Polka, "Les Vendredis " (with Liadov and 

Glazounov). Prom., Oct. 21, 1899. (E.) 
Tchaikovsky. Marche Solennelle. Prom., Oct. 2, 1895. 

(E.) 

Suite, " Casse-Noisette." Op. yia. Prom-., Oct. 17, 

1896. (E.) 

Overture to drama, " L'Orage." Op. 76. Sym. Con., 

Feb. 20, 1897. (E.) 
- Overture to "Voivode." Tchai. Con., May 15, 

1897. (E.) 

Suite for orchestra, No. 3 in G. Op. 55. First 

performance of entire work. May 15, 1897. 
(E.) 

Suite No. 4, " Mozartiana." Op. 61. Prom., Sept. 

24, 1897. (E.) 

Overture Triomphale on Danish National Hymn. 

Op. 15. Tchai. Con., June 15, 1898. (E.) 

Entr'acte and Airs de Ballet from "Voivode." Op. 3. 

Prom., Sept. 14, 1898. (L.) 

Symphonic Poem, " Manfred." Op. 58. Prom., 

Sept. 28, 1898. (E.) 

Waltz from " Dornroschen." Prom., Sept. 29, 1898. 

(L.) 

Polonaise from " Eugen Oniegin." First concert per- 

formance. Prom., Oct. 6, 1898. (E.) 

Fantasia for orchestra, "The Tempest." Op. 18. 

Prom., Oct. 5, 1898. (E.) 



LIST OF WORKS 99 

Tchaikovsky. Suite for orchestra, No. 2 in C., "Carac- 
teristique." Op. 53. Prom., Sept 2, 1899. (E.) 

Overture to "Les Caprices d'Oxane." Prom., Sept. 

22, 1899. (E.) 

Danse Cosaque from "Mazeppa." Prom., Sept. 28, 

1899. (E.) 

Symphonic Poem, "Fatum." Op. 77. Sym. Con., 

Oct. 28, 1899. (E.) 

Symphony No. 3 in D. Op. 29. Prom., Sept. 27, 

1899. (L.) 

Suite from "The Swan Lake" (Ballet). Prom., 

Sept. 14, 1901. (E.) 
Schaferspiel from "La Dame de Pique." Prom., 

Nov. 6, 1901. (E.) 
Symphony No. i, G minor. Op. 13. Prom., 

Aug. 27, 1902. (L.) 
Symphony No. 2, C minor. Op. 17. Prom., Sept. 

3, 1902. (L.) 

Concerto for piano in E flat, No. 3. Op. 75. Prom., 

Oct. 15, 1902. (L.) 

March, Entr'acte and Overture, l< Hamlet." Prom., 

Oct. 29, 1902. (L.) 

Wolkov, N. de. Cosatschok. Op. 37. Prom., Sept. 9, 
1899- (E.) 

SCANDINAVIAN. 

Alfven, Hugo. Symphony No. 2 in D. Op. n. Prom., 

Sept. 17, 1901. (E.) 
Enna, Auguste. Overture, " Cleopatre." Prom., Sept. 13, 

1902. (E.) 
Grieg, Edvard. Two Norwegian Melodies for string 

orchestra. Op. 63. Prom., Oct. 6, 1896. (E.) 

Symphonic Dances. Op. 64. Sym. Con., Jan. 28, 

1899. (E.) 



ioo HENRY J. WOOD 

Halvorsen. "Boyard's March." Prom., Oct. 2, 1895. (E.) 

Suite for Orchestra, " Vasantasena." Sym. Con., 

June 15, 1898. (E.) 

Norwegian Folk Song for strings. Prom., Sept. 8, 

1898. (E.) 
Olsen, Ole. Symphonic Poem, "Asgardsreien." Op. 10. 

Prom., Sept. 16, 1899. (E.) 
Sinding, Christian. Suite, " Episodes Chevaleresques. Op. 

35. Sym. Con., Nov. n. 1899. (E.) 

Violin Concerto, No. i in A. Prom., Sept. 25, 1902. 

(L.) 
Sjogren, Emil. Episode for Orchestra, " Wiistenwander- 

ung der Heiligen drei Konige." Sym. Con., Feb. 

25, 1899. (E.) 
Svendsen, Johan S. Andante Funebre for orchestra. 

Prom., Oct. 2, 1895. ( E 

SPANISH. 

Albinez. Suite, "Catalonia." Sunday Con., March 4, 
1900. (E.) 



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TESTIMONIAL from Mr. HENRY J. WOOD. 

I have thoroughly tested the Grand and Upright 
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express my entire delight and satisfaction with the 
richness and beauty of tone, mechanism, touch, and 
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Stisted Hall, 

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October i2th, 1903. 
Gentlemen, 

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I am, yours faithfully, 

(Signed) JAMES PAXMAN. 
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COMPOSER. 

AITKEN, GEORGE 
BARNS, ETHEL ... 
BRIGHT, DORA ... 



CHADWICK, G. W. 
CLARKE, REGINALD 

DENZA, L 

EDEN, ROBERT ... 



HENSCHEL, H 

MAcDowELi., EDWARD 



MOSSELEY, CAROLINE C. 

NEEDHAM, ALICIA A. 
NEWTON, ERNEST 

PITT, PERCY. 

SCOTT, CYRIL ... ... 

SOMERVILLE, REGINALD 



TROTERE, H 

WALLACE, WILLIAM ... 



TITLE. 

' The Message of Hope" 

'Remembrance" 

' Songs from the Jungle 

Book" 

'Two Seal Songs" 

Allah" 

'At Parting" 

'Sweetest Eyes" 

'The John Bull Store" 
1 Until To-morrow" ... 
'What's the use of 

being wise?" 
' Drink to me only " ... 
'A Maid sings light" ... 

'Long Ago" 

'Thy Beaming Eyes" 
'Jocky and Jenny" 

(Old Air, 1586) 
'I Vunder Vy" ... ... 

'The Beautiful Garden ' ' 
' Love is a Dream" ... 
'Two Poems," Op. 74 ... 
'The Village Green"... 
'Shone the Sun Yes- 
terday? " 

'When I gaze on a rose" 
'Mistress Vanity" 



SUNG BY 

Mdtne. Marian McKenzie. 
Mr. Herbert Graver. 

Mr. Dennis O' Sullivan. 
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Mdnte. Marian McKenzie 
Miss Mabel Braine. 
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Miss Alys Bateman. 

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Mr. Watkin Mills. 
Mdme. Janson. 
Mr. Gregory Hast. 
Mr. Kennerley Rum ford. 

Mdtne. Blanche Marchezi. 
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Mrs. Henry J. Wood. 
Mr. David Bispham. 
Mdme Berth* Moore. 

Mdme. Bertha Moore. 
Miss Grainger Kerr. 
Mr. Gregory Hast. 



Songs by EDWARD MACDOWELL. 

From The Times : 

"Messrs. Elkin & Co. send a number of very interesting songs 
by the distinguished American composer, EDWARD MACDovvELL. 

" His Op. 40, consisting of six love-songs, has several besides the 
beautiful 'THY BEAMING EYES' that deserve to be known to every 
musician. The four songs, Op. 56, are of rather slighter quality, but 
not less artistic ; and the three, Op. 58, though short, have great 
beauty and value." 



ELKIN & CO., LTD., 8 & 10, Beak St., Regent St., London, W. 
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THE 



METROSTYLE PIANOLA 




JHE 



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the first time, and I am intensely interested and astonished at its 
marvellous performances. It is musical and artistic, and when 
heard in connection with the Metrostyle simply stands alone and 
cannot be classed with any other instrument played by auto 
means." 

Write for Catalogue AiB. 

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SIX FAIRY PLAYS 
FOR CHILDREN. By 

NETTA SYRETT f * * * 

Small 4to. 
Price 2s. 6d. net. Price $1*00 net. 

CONTAINING : 

THE DREAM LADY. WHITE MAGIC 

LITTLE BRIDGET. THE MAGIC ROSE. 

THE GIFT of the FAIRIES. IN ARCADY. 

MUSIC by J. DALHOUSIE YOUNG. 

Published by JOSEPH WILLIAMS, Ltd., 32, Great Portland 
Street, W. Price 2s. net. 



The Atheneewn. "Many a father and mother will be grateful to her. The 
plays are short ; they are manageable." 

The Saturday Review. " These little plays are charming . . . and well 
within the limits of childish art." 

The Daily Telegraph. Hostesses with young folk to please should find 
Miss Syrett's book a boon and a blessing." 

The Daily News. " Simple, understandable, yet with plenty of vivacity. 
. . . Most acceptable to all concerned in children's theatricals." 

The Daily Chronicle . "Every one of the six could be produced with ease on 
the amateur stage, whether at school or at home." 

The Westminster Gazette. " Budding amateur actors should take note ot 
this book, which supplies them with excellent material." 

Journal of Education. " These little plays show real poetical eeling.' 
Educational Times " Cleverly contrived and prettily set out." 

Educational News. " Set out with that artistic completeness which we expect 
from The Bodley Head. . . . Suitable for production in girls' schools . . . 
the stories . . . are just such as children delight in." 



JOHN LANE, Publisher, London and New York. 



POPULAR SONGS PUBLISHED BY 

JOSEPH WILLIAMS, Ltd 

(Music of every Publisher kept in Stock.) 

In keys to suit all voices. Price 2S. net. 



ALLITSEN, FRANCES . . 

BLUMENTHAL. J. . . . 
CHAM1NADE, C 

COWEN, F. H 



GOUNOD. CHAS. . 
>HNSON. NOEL 



LEHMANN. LIZA . . . 
MASSENET, JULES 

MACKENZIE, Sir A. C. , 

NEEDHAM, ALICIA A. 
PASCAL, FLOR1AN . . 
SULLIVAN, Sir ARTHUR 



THOMAS, GORING 



THOME, FRANCOIS . . 
WHITE, MAUDE VALERIE 



King Duncan's Daughters. 

Diamonds and Pearls. 

A Song of Four Seasons. 

A Day Dream. 

A Refuge. 

L'ete (Summer). 

Chant d' Amour. 

Meditation. 

Love me if I live. 

For a Dream's Sake. 

A Birthday. 

At the mid hour of night. 

Snowflakes. 

Because. 

Chanson de Florian. 

Embarquez-vous. 

Easter Daisy. 

Swift flies the arrow. 

Your Thoughts. 

The Butterfly. 

O, tell me, nightingale. 

Zanetto. 

Moonlight's Magic Hour. 

I cannot tell what you say. 

Pretty Peg of Peg well Bay. 

Connaught Love Song. 

Love me in May. 

Where is another sweet? 

Marriage Morning. 

A Memory (Le Baiser). 

Love's Echoes. 

Pictured Face. 
Memories. 

The Christ Child. 

A Finland Love Song. 

1 am thine. 



32, GREAT PORTLAND STREET, LONDON, W. 



LIVING MASTERS 

OF MUSIC 

AN ILLUSTRATED SERIES OF 
MONOGRAPHS DEALING WITH 
CONTEMPORARY MUSICAL LIFE 
& INCLUDING REPRESENTATIVES 
OF ALL BRANCHES OF THE ART 

EDITED BY 
ROSA NEWMARCH. 

The following volumes are in preparation : 
Vol. I. HENRY J. WOOD. By ROSA NEWMARCH. 
Vol.11. RICHARD STRAUSS. By ALFRED KALISCH. 
Vol. III. EDWARD ELGAR. By R. J. BUCKLEY. 
Vol. IV. PADEREWSKI. By EDWARD A. BAUGHAN. 
Vol. V. ALFRED BRUNEAU. By ARTHUR HERVEY. 
Vol. VI. JOACHIM. By J. A. FULLER MAITLAND. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. 

IT seems evident that the years are bringing back to the Anglo- 
Saxon races that wider and more social interest in music 
which, half a century ago, seems to have dwindled to a 
languid, dilettante patronage of Italian Opera. Every year a larger 
number of the public become habitual concert-goers, and music 
seems to be entering upon a healthier and more democratic phase 
of its existence. With this revived interest comes a desire to know 
something more of the master-spirits of the musical world j not 
merely of the old classical composers, but of those living person- 
alities who are actually shaping the destinies of the art. 



EDITORS NOTE (Continued}. 

Biographies of Bach, Handel, and Mendelssohn, for all their 
instructive value, tell us nothing of the present day. The men 
who are making history in politics, warfare, or science have a 
strong grip on our interests and imaginations. Judging from the 
success of many recent memoirs, and the increasing number of 
series devoted to books on living celebrities, it seems as though 
contemporary biography, with its glow and actuality, exercised an 
endless fascination for the public. As far as I am aware, no 
English or American series has attempted to do for musicians 
what has been done for living men of letters, soldiers, statesmen, 
or scientists. It is to be hoped that the "Living Masters of 
Music" series will supply this deficiency by giving the public just 
those details about the composers and executive artists whom they 
hear and see, as will enable them to realise their individual 
influence on contemporary music. 

The scope of these volumes is wider than that of any other 
musical series now before the British or American public, since it is 
intended to include representatives of every branch of musical 
activity, provided they are really central figures in their own sphere. 
The interpreting conductor that latest phenomenon in the world of 
music the virtuoso, the master-teacher possibly even the great 
vocalist will be represented in these volumes as well as the creative 
artist. 

The distinguishing feature of the books will be that touch 01 
intimacy which gives to contemporary biography its greatest value 
and vitality. As far as possible, each volume will be confided to a 
writer who is actually acquainted with the personality and the work 
of the musician he is invited to depict. We are confident that such 
a serit-s will have more interest for the musical public than those 
which deal exclusively with composers of the past. Biographical 
matter will not be neglected, but each book will aim at being an 
essay on the man and his work, rather than a detailed biography. 
In the case of composers, the volumes will contain a complete list of 
works up to date, portraits, fac-similes, and other illustrations. 



JOHN LANE, Publisher, London and New York. 



A REVELATION IN MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS 

THE UNIVERSAL EDITION. ) Containing the works of the 
THE UNIVERSAL EDITION. ggSfgttSZ 

THE UNIVERSAL EDITION.) musicians of the day. 



Exceptional Testimonials from Professionals and Amateurs, &c., 

as to the Excellency, Correctness, Quality of Paper, Engraving, 

and Cheapness of this Marvellous Edition. 

Important new numbers by Strelezki, Tschaikowsky, Bruckner, Mandyczewski, 
Suppe, Ziehrer, Hellmesberger, Mayseder, Vieuxtemps, &c., have recently been 
added to the extensive Catalogue. 

PRICES OF THESE VOLUMES FROM 6d. UPWARDS. 

Please send for Catalogue and Sample Copy to 

E. ASCHERBERG & CO., 46, Berners Street, W. 

NEW SONGS OF INTRINSIC MERIT. 

2s. each net. 



nard Roll 
. Zardo 
The Song of My Love .. Guy d'Hardelot 



In the Merry Hay Time . . Ber 
Barcarolle Serenade . . . . N. 
The Song of My Love .. Guy 



f My 
nd Mi 



Thy Love and Mine . . . . Bernard Rolt 
' 



Thy Love an Mne . . . . Berna 
When a Man's in Love . . Daisy 
Hush, don't Wake de Picca- 



McGeoch 



ninnies Jocelyn Noel 

Chloe's Bridal Morn .. .. W. J. Paans 
Sea Cradle Song . . .. N. Zardo 
Two SOURS of May . . . . N. Zardo 
Myosotis J\L. Roeckel 



H1VUSUL18 . . .. .. .. (/. A/, JVUeUACt 

When Thou art Sad . . . . Edgardo Levi 
Spring Once More .. .. Edgardo Levi 



.. N. Zar 
.. J.L.1 
.. Edgar 



Make me Thine . . . . F. Thumt 
Piccaninny's Slumber Song J. Fredericks 
I Sit and Dream .. .. W. Earnstutue 

Forgive W. Earmhaire 

Two Blue Eyes W. Earnshau-e 

Ave Maria (with Latin 

words) Mascagni 

Dream Visions (or L'Extase) F. Thome 
Two Songs { j f^ miee }HaroldGarstin 
An Arabian Slumber Song A. Schonberg 
Jephtha's Daughter ( Drama- 
tic Scene) A. Raimo 



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The New Cake Walk .. F. Solomon I Les Viennoises Waltz ..Stanislas 

The King Cake Walk .. A. Trevelyan \ Amabella Waltz .. .. Pontin 

Ad Astra Waltz .. .. L. Sylva- I Gavotte de la Reine .. .. Pontin 

Cora Mia Waltz .. . M. Carandini I Valse Intermezzo .. ..L. Narici 

Valse Royale M. Stone Gabrielle L. Narici 

Cocktail Cake Walk .. .. H. Finck ! Badinage Victor Herbert 

March Triomphale . . . . Pietrapertosa Powder and Patches . . . . C. Trevor 



Intermezzo from the Opera 

"Rosalba" E. Pizzi 



Tres Piquant (Intermezzo).. Th. Bonheur 
Entr'acte H. Garstin 



"Come, Come, Caroline" Waltz and Polka March. 

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Newmarch, Rosa Harriet 
422 (Jeaffreson) 
W86N4 Henry J. Wood 

ft* 



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